The narrator of Henry James’ Daisy Miller contributes to the novella’s realism, as defined by James himself in his essay “The Art of Fiction,” by creating a narrator who acts as an observer to the events described in the story rather than an omniscient narrator who informs the reader of the thoughts of the characters. Rather than focusing on the internal workings of the character’s minds, James focuses on the external details which offers the reader a realistic perspective of the characters and leaves moral judgment to the readers. James states in “The Art of Fiction” that “the only reason for the existence of the novel is that it does attempt to represent life” (322). The novella begins, after a short description of setting, with “I” (281). The “I” refers to the unnamed character who acts as a first person limited omniscient narrator limited to the point of view of Winterbourne.
Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. Ed. Joseph Terry. New York, NY: Pearson Longman, 2007. 1764-1832.
51-64. Watson, J.R. English Poetry of the Romantic Period. New York: Longman, Inc. 1985. Wordsworth, William. “The Ruined Cottage.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Romantic Period.
Henry James discusses the intricacies of writing in his piece “The Art of Fiction.” While the main binary in literature is between that of fiction and non-fiction, however James further distinguishes the category of fiction into romance and novel. While a romance exists for the form of entertainment and is driven by character development, a novel is more of an attempt to create a realistic representation of the current social standard. James declares that fiction is not just a leisure art form but meant to be taken seriously, as a historical text. In this piece James critiques the work of another author, Besant, and discredits the former hostility towards novels as a credible form of knowledge. Many of James’ key points are present in his short story “Daisy Miller: A Study” which follows a young girl’s journey through American society abroad.
To the contrary, the author?s admittance of the characters as fictional creations whom he has pondered very deeply lend ... ... middle of paper ... ...ly ignored, it is important to understand Kundera?s purposes outside of this historical context. This is the fundamental purpose of the intrusive author figure in The Unbearable Lightness of Being: to strip the traditional novel of kitschy, political codes and grind beneath the surface to greater, more complicated questions of existence that, while unanswerable by the author, are more fruitful pursuits than historical or political messages. The philosophy can be summed up in Sabina?s mantra, ?On the surface, the intelligible lie; underneath the surface, the unintelligible truth.? Works Cited Angyal, Andrew. ?Review: The Unbearable Lightness of Being.?
Bitter Bierce. New York: Cooper Square Publishers, Inc., 1966. Print. Pizer, Donald. “Late Nineteenth-Century American Literary Realism.” Realism and Naturalism in Late Nineteenth-Century American Literature.
Reid, Alfred. “Emerson’s Prose Style: An Edge to Goodness.” Style in the American Renaissance: A Symposium. (1970): 37-42. Rpt. in Nineteenth Century Literature Criticism.
In the “Black Cat” Poe’s use of self-reliance is unique as he challenges it through the narrator’s rational explanation of irrational events. Emerson’s “Self Reliance” is extremely indicative of its title as it emphasizes the reliance in one’s self as essential in the transcendentalist journey to find truth. The romantic literary principle, self-reliance, is present in both works, however, the authors’ representation and use of it differs in both texts according to style, subject matter, and genre. Ralph Waldo Emerson’s essay, “Self Reliance” is a rational argument attempting to persuade readers to rely on oneself for guidance rather than external influences such as religion, philosophy, books and society. Due to Emerson’s belief that God created everyone unique and with a specific purpose, Emerson argues by trusting in one’s intuition, individuals will be rightfully serving God and developing a closer spiritual relationship with him.
Martin Seymour-Smith. London : Shuckburgh Reynolds Ltd., 1980, 154-155. Wagenknecht, Edward. “Nathaniel Hawthorne.” Cavalcade of the American Novel. New York : Henry Holt and Company, 1952, 90, 9, 20, 25, 38-57.