Realism Vs Realism

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As described by Tim Dunne, the “United Nations is a multi-purpose agency directed to specific goals including collective security, peace-keeping, health, environmental and human rights concerns” (Dunne, 2007: 103). Although there are many concerns regarding the UN, there are two classical viewpoints which divide opinion on the UN’s effectives on the global stage; the realist and the liberal argument. The realists can point out that international organizations such as the United Nations are “of little help in channeling the perpetual power struggle between states, since they cannot change the anarchical structure of the international system” (Rittberger, 2006: 15). On the other side of the argument, the liberal viewpoint, strongly influenced…show more content…
However, realists may have the edge when they debate that the “logic of collective security is contrasted with the difficulties of its application” (Weiss, 2007: 4). Unsurprisingly, distrust was an elephant in the room after WWII, as highlighted by the Security Council’s 193 vetoes between 1945-1990” (Baylis, 2011: 316). The United State’s invasions of Vietnam, Grenada and Panama in addition to the Soviet Union’s invasions of Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan (Weiss, 2007: 4) are merely a few examples of the constant proxy war operations that took place throughout the second half of the 20th century. This highlighted the ineffectiveness of the UN’s Security Council in preventing conflict across the world, and supported realists, that “there is no supranational authority [the UN] capable of wielding overwhelming power” (Rittberger, 2006: 15). This largely contradicts Kant, who claims that “international organizations can constrain decision-makers by positively promoting peace” (Dunne, 2010: 102). Liberalists including Kofi Annan argued that the ‘security dilemma’, which is built on the premise that “one country improves its security at the expense of other states” (Dunne, 2010: 81) had been averted. Although recently it has been bright in terms of the UN serving as a successful platform for peace and compromise between states; I still take into account the period 1945-1990 where the UN…show more content…
Realists heavily criticize the idea of a collective attempt to prevent environmental work, taking into consideration heavy economic powers such as the United States (the only nations to not attend the Kyoto conference) concluded that it wasn’t in their best interests to change their production for the sake of the environment, especially during times of constant economic expansion through capitalism. The reaction of this major powerhouse strongly backs realists. Although it has seen problems the problem of climate change has been address by the United Nations. The UN’s reaction to environmental concerns strongly backs liberalist idea in that “liberal societies have become a fertile ground for the promotion of ecological attitudes and environmental philosophy” (De Shalit, 1995: 49). Evidence highlighted by the Rio Summit, Montreal and Kyoto Protocol’s (UNEP, 2012) claim that the UN has effectively dealt with fighting and recognizing problems such as deforestation and climate
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