New York: McGraw Hill 2009. Print Perkins George, Barbara. The American Tradition in Literature, 12th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2009. Print
Autonomous thinking gives the reader the advantage of discovering the duplicity of a potential underlying connotation or simply deciding not to delve deeper for hidden implications that may be sought out by the author. Barthes’s, The Death of the Author, provides the reader with knowledge and enlightenment in order to have the freedom to dive and think critically about the subject and characters written about in the narrative by Balzac. Barthes’s, The Death of the Author, proposes literary theories that can be directly related to the subjectivity of how a reader chooses to synthesis the meaning or meaninglessness of Balthazar’s Marvelous Afternoon. Th... ... middle of paper ... ...within the author but stays alive within the reader, as he becomes the remaining chief; the live spirit of interpretation and significant connotations. Although the text may become derivative as it is translated from author to text, the inability to conquer the true meaning of the authors is solely left up to the subjectivity of the reader.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York: St. Martins, 1991. Jacobson, Gary. The Critical Response to Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter.
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990: 533-544. 2 vols.
The narrator of Henry James’ Daisy Miller contributes to the novella’s realism, as defined by James himself in his essay “The Art of Fiction,” by creating a narrator who acts as an observer to the events described in the story rather than an omniscient narrator who informs the reader of the thoughts of the characters. Rather than focusing on the internal workings of the character’s minds, James focuses on the external details which offers the reader a realistic perspective of the characters and leaves moral judgment to the readers. James states in “The Art of Fiction” that “the only reason for the existence of the novel is that it does attempt to represent life” (322). The novella begins, after a short description of setting, with “I” (281). The “I” refers to the unnamed character who acts as a first person limited omniscient narrator limited to the point of view of Winterbourne.
619-632 Poe,Edgar Allen. "Fall of the House of Usher." Anthology of American Literautre. Ed. George McMicheal et al 2 vols.
“The Return into Time: Hawthorne.” In Hawthorne – A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by A.N. Kaul. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. Williams, Stanley T. “Hawthorne’s Puritan Mind.” In Readings on Nathaniel Hawthorne, edited by Clarice Swisher. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1996.