Radiation Essay

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Radiation around us in everywhere, we can receive radiation from the natural or artificially by manmade. Radiation produced when the atom change its internal structure by emitting electromagnetic radiation or particle (beta and alpha) trying to be stable or radiation can produced when some particle interact with the atom. We receive radiation from cosmic rays, building materials and from terrestrial sources as in rocks and soils which contain small quantities of the radioactive elements uranium with daughter products. The rate of dose from natural radiation is 1 mSv/year. The other source of radiation is by man-made like radiation produced in diagnostic and therapeutic department or radiation that produced from radioactive wastes and the rate of doses occurring by manmade are about 0.4 mSv/year. When radiation passes through the matter it produces ionizing radiation which causes biological effects.
The affects that produced from radiation are grouped into two types, stochastic effects which occurs by chance and its probability increases as the absorbed dose increase also there is no threshold for the stochastic effects so it occurs randomly such as cancer and genetic effects , these effects often take years to show up, the other type is non-stochastic effects which cause most biological effects and its severity varies with dose also there is threshold for non-stochastic effects if the specific dose of the organ exceeded it must increases the occurring of the non-stochastic effect for examples erythema , infertility, death and skin burns.
According to these effects the scientists learned that the radiation was not only beneficial, but it could be dangerous to the human body, thus they try to minimize the harmful radiati...

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...is no threshold for it so radiation must be low to prevent any chance for the cancer and other diseases. The ALARA principle must be applied at any procedure.

It is important to evaluate the benefit of the radiation and it must be more than the harms also if there is no benefit so there is no reason to expose the person to radiation. In all application it must justified if there is no benefit.
The responsibility in any procedure is referred to the Technologist who will do the examination and provide a good procedure with short time and to care about the patient without overexposure. The radiologist accept the responsibility with the technologist about reduce the exposure as possible .Also the physician who order the examination is responsible for exposure the patient to necessary examination and it must be avoid expose the patient for unwanted radiation.

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