Literature Review: The reason affirmative action is necessary in some parts of in American society is because of the historical significance of racism that embodies American history. As a result, minorities as well as women in the employment industry, and educational system have suffered for not meeting such “requirements”. Often times institutional racism is subtle, unconscious, and rationalize on the basis of nonracial criteria, and does not take the form of overt discrimination like individual racism (McClain, 8 & Crosby, 95). Thus, universities and places of employment may be operating in a manner that is unfair to minorities and women, and may not necessarily be aware of it. In a random sample study of 244 managers, it was found that they characterized female managers more negatively than they did the males, and they assumed that women are unsuited to the rough and tumble world of high-status jobs (Crosby, 101).
Affirmative Action Blacks and other minority groups have been wrongfully persecuted and punished and have suffered the indignities of discrimination. As Martin Luther King stated so eloquently in his "I Have a Dream" speech, blacks should be judged "…not by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character." Our American culture with its political, legal, and social considerations, is struggling with the idea of white redemption while offering minorities a more fair and proportionate representation in the working community. The result of this challenge is the policy of affirmative action and the many controversies it brings with it. The proponents of affirmative action argue that because of past injustices, minorities deserve special privileges.
The United States is a country with equal rights for everyone. But in some places black ethnicity is seen as a lower level socioeconomic class. Maybe some people have strong socioeconomic level, but still having an ethnic black sounding name makes the society think that they are poor, uneducated and uncultured. By only referring to the name, the white society marks them with poverty and lowers the quality of being part of the high corporate jobs or the best universities around the United States. Even if a black person works hard to have a higher degree, he or she might be consider as undesirable because of being black and having a black ethnic name.
Institutions in the businesses sector are swarming in racial discrimination, much of which is covert and difficult to detect and prove. Racial discrimination excludes, marginalizes and exploits those citizens who are discriminated against, ceasing any opportunity for economic progress and development. Under certain regulations some businesses are required to diversify their workplace by hiring certain amounts of people of color, but in reality these small quotas do not do much for the overall condition of the people who are being discriminated against. Businesses that fail to take action on racial discrimination tend to have lower levels of productivity. This stems from employees not being interested in working hard, or because people with exceptional talents and skills choose to shy away from certain places of employment due to the fear of racial discrimination.
Within “Theme for B” by Langston Hughes, Hughes finds some similarities towards another race. "I like to work, read, learn, and understand life…I guess being colored doesn’t make me NOT like the same things other folks like who are other races.”(443). Hughes wants races that separate themselves from others, to realize that they all have at least share one a similar quality as individuals. Coming together as all races can create an outcome of solving economic and social issues. The concept of social justice relates to English Theme B because races such as African Americans and others are not treated and viewed the same compared to whites.
Institutional racism is when institutions such as schools, corporations, and government give poor treatment to groups of people based off of race. The fact that institutional racism still occurs is a reason race still matters in America. Races are not genetically different; all humans are the same. However in America, it is frequently perceived that race somehow equates to the level of someone’s intelligence. In spite of some Black’s high intelligence levels, they are less likely to get higher positions in corporations.
Affirmative action is just because it gives a fair advantage to black Americans, women and other minorities who have suffered from the effects of social injustice in our country. Majorities have constantly opposed affirmative action because they view it as an injustice directed to them. In Grutter v Bollinger, one can say that affirmative action is just because it is a benign discrimination. One might say that the law school?s consideration of African Americans, Hispanics and Native American student?s (who otherwise might not be represented in the student body) is unjust. However, considering the facts of the case, the school?s policy does not define diversity solely in terms of racial and ethnic status and does not restrict the types of diversity contributions eligible for ?substantial weight.?
The feeling of being wanted and accepted by one’s peers is a must in the ultimate well-being of a person. African Americans especially, are faced with certain questions within themselves when they are more than likely the minority in certain environments. For example, an African American student attending a predominately white college would ask themselves: “Why is everybody staring at me? Why am I so different from everybody else? Maybe if I changed my looks, I would fit in better?” This is a lack of self-consciousness and low self-esteem.
External racism is outside of the black community, which is how society looks at African Americans. White’s views on blacks shape the negative stereotypes that some blacks have adapted into their culture while some try to exclude themselves from the following stereotypes: drug dealers, criminals, dumb, ignorant, poor, athletic, religious, and musically gifted. Non-African Americans that choose to listen to African American stereotypes are pretty much saying that they only need to meet one African American to know what all the others are like. This is a big problem for African Americans that don’t even meet the criteria of those said stereotypes. All African Americans are judged one way.
Society shapes racial inequality in the modern United States and Wayne Brekhus (2015) looks at how social marking is an element of culture in American society. When discussing race, people tend to talk about discrimination against marginalized communities (i.e. non-whites, females, homosexuals, etc.). They actively look at the marked category--those marginalized communities-- and the unmarked goes ignored. Berkhus believes that there are two possible reasons why these unmarked categories are avoided.