Hughes, R. 1998. Environmental Impact Assessment and Stakeholder Involvement. International Institute for Environment And Development. Environmental Planning Issues No. 11 Jay S., Jones C., Slinn P, Wood C. 2007.
EPA Grant # R827642 Morrison, M. L., Marcot, B. G. and Manon, R. W. (1992). Wildlife-habitat relationship. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. Owen, O. S. and Chiras, D. D. (1990). Natural Resource Conservation: An ecological approach.
Although, the first official endangered species legislation was a 1966 bill that called for saving U.S. wildlife, but lacked the powers to do so. The Endangered Species Act(ESA) of 1973 set forth the basic rules that apply in the U.S. today. Two agencies, the Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service, are responsible for reviewing the status of species in trouble to see if they warrant listing as either threatened or endangered. The decision is to be based solely on scientific data rather than social factors, such as economic, political, and psychological factors. In theory, once a species is listed, no person, group or branch of the federal government; not even the United States Department of Defense- is allowed to proceed with a project that might harm the creature without first consulting and obtaining permission of the wildlife or fisheries service.
There have been treaties created aimed to try to fix and/or maintain the environment, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The research topic will be explaining the reasons behind the U.N.’s deficiency in effectiveness of treaties focused on helping the environment. Applying the realist theory will explain why the U.N. is unable to create successful treaties because member states do not fully cooperate with the treaty’s guidelines. States exist in an anarchic international system and behave according to their self-interests because there is no global authority (Stanford University). This case will focus on explaining the lack of success of U.N. environmental efforts on passing treaties due to the fact that member states fail to comply with the guidelines.
Before going into details about implementation of the MSFD, the French old national marine protection scheme should be described. It provided a legal basis for nation-state and regional actions on this field: Law for Nature Protection (1976), The marine biodiversity action plan (2005), The law on marine nature park (2006). Scheme framed by these legal documents did not use to provide sub-national authorities with enough competences to manage or even take part in managing process of marine areas which they have an outlet to. However, the situation has changed after the transposition of MSFD into French legislation system through the Law of 12 July 2010 concerning the national commitment to the environment, called the ‘Loi Grenelle 2’, and through the decree No. N011-492 of 5 May 2011 concerning the creation and implementation of action plans for the marine environment (L’Agence des Aires Marines Protégées, 2013).
The first definition that is offered is local amenity, which explains that the environment has aesthetic and recreational values associated with it. The next is environment as heritage landscape, which sees the environment as he... ... middle of paper ... ...l Managment, 103-114. The Chair: Cabinet Policy Committee. (n.d). Planning for the effects of climate change: the role of the Resource Management Act .
Climate change is a controversial subject that needs further investigation to conclusively prove to others that a problem exists. Even those trying to prove climate change will admit there are multiple variables that can affect the planet’s climate and many of those are not man-made. As stated in the introduction to chapter 12, “2013: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Com¬mitments and Irreversibility”, of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (AR5) by Collins et al. (2013), Projections of future climate change are not like weather forecasts. It is not possible to make deterministic, definitive predictions of how climate will evolve over the next century and beyond as it is with short-term weather forecasts… Projections of climate change are uncertain, first because they are dependent primarily on scenarios of future anthropogenic and natural forcings that are uncertain, second because of incomplete understanding and imprecise models of the climate system and finally because of the existence of internal climate variability.