Introduction I decided to write about the influence of race and ethnicity on a person’s educational level. I was born and raised in the Dominican Republic where, within my social group, schooling and education was deemed as an essential part of life. In the United States, however, there exist a greater number of racial and ethnic groups, and it is evident that an achievement gap exists among these groups. Here, Dominicans are marginalized as part of a Hispanic minority group that does not achieve the educational status of other groups, such as Whites or Jewish. I chose to write about the disparity of education within races and seek to answer how race affects a person’s educational level. Through research, I will examine if there is a correlation, be it direct or indirect, between a person’s race and their educational attainment. In order to answer this question, it is important to consider other variables, such as a sex, socioeconomic status, culture, and religion. How do these variables influence a racial group’s access to education? Numerous studies have been done to answer questions like these. I am curious to find out what intrinsic characteristics of a racial/ethnic group impact their success. My research will include collection of existing data and analysis of several case studies. Some of the sociological questions that I would use to answer my hypothesis are: What are some factors that affect a person’s education level? Or how does sex affect the success of a person? Also I will explain the meaning of socioeconomic status? And is culture the foundation of educational levels? I will use these questions to help me write my research paper. The hypothesis that I formulated to give structure to my paper: H1:... ... middle of paper ... ... 2003). Some locations in the United States are trying to improve their education by adding quality teachers. A major reason why there is an achievement gap in education is because there exist a gap in teachers as well. Research has shown that teacher quality counts. Some states are seeking ways to keep quality teachers and ways to attract them. In New York City, the schools will not hire teachers that are not certified. Also, New York and California are adding some sort of incentive in public schools, to attract quality teaching to minority schools. Sometimes school add annual bonus up to $10,000 for qualify teacher to work in public school, with low achieving schools. Also, many state provide some sort of tuition assistance for teacher, but of all of the states only seven target the candidates to commit to the lower achieving schools (Olsen, 2003).
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A substantial amount of educational and psychological research has consistently demonstrated that African American students underperform academically relative to White students. For example, they tend to receive lower grades in school (e.g., Demo & Parker, 1987; Simmons, Brown, Bush, & Blyth, 1978), score lower on standardized tests of intellectual ability (e.g., Bachman, 1970; Herring, 1989; Reyes & Stanic, 1988; Simmons et al., 1978), drop out at higher rates (e.g., American Council on Education, 1990; Steele, 1992), and graduate from college with substantially lower grades than White students (e.g., Nettles, 1988). Such performance gaps can be attributed to any number of factors, such as socioeconomic status, academic preparation, and educational opportunities; however, Steele (1997) pointed out that even when background factors are held constant, subsequent achievement remains lower for minority students. Moreover, much research in this area has focused on how African American students’ lack of motivation and negative attitudes contribute to their inferior academic performance (Ogbu, 1990); yet many Black students often report high educational aspirations (Fordham, 1996; Fine, 1991; Ogbu, 1987, 1990; Hauser & Anderson, 1991), even higher than White students of comparable class background (MacLeod, 1995). What remains certain is the urgent need to explain what accounts for the persistent academic underachievement of Black students.
The achievement gap is defined as the disparity between the performance groups of students, especially groups defined by gender, race/ethnicity, ability and socio-economic status. The achievement gap can be observed through a variety of measures including standardized test scores, grade point averages, drop out rates, college enrollment and completion rates. The Black-White achievement gap is a critical issue in modern society’s education system. Although data surrounding the issue clearly indicates that the racial performance gap exists in areas of standardized tests, graduation rates, dropout rates, and enrollment in continuing education, the causative reasons for the gap are ambiguous—therefore presenting a significant challenge in regard to the most effective way to close the gap. The gap appears before children enter kindergarten and it persists into adulthood (Jencks 1998). Since 1970, the gap has decreased about 40 percent, but has steadily grown since. Theories suggest the Black-White achievement gap is created by a multitude of social, cultural, and economic factors as well as educational opportunities and/or learning experiences. Factors such as biased testing, discrimination by teachers, test anxiety among black students, disparities between blacks and whites in income or family structure, and genetic and cultural differences between blacks and whites have all been evaluated as explanations for the Black-White achievement gap (Farkas 2004). The research that follows will elaborate on these factors as they affect the decline in academic performance of black males—particularly the literacy achievement of black males.
Today's education is often viewed as failing in its goal of educating students, especially those students characterized as minorities, including African American, Hispanic, and Appalachian students (Quiroz, 1999). Among the minority groups mentioned, African American males are affected most adversely. Research has shown that when Black male students are compared to other students by gender and race they consistently rank lowest in academic achievement (Ogbu, 2003), have the worst attendance record (Voelkle, 1999), are suspended and expelled the most often (Raffaele Mendez, 2003; Staples, 1982), are most likely to drop out of school, and most often fail to graduate from high school or to earn a GED (Pinkney, 2000; Roderick, 2003).
Our daily lives are affected by race whether we are aware of it or not. How we live different aspects of our lives depend on the colour of our skin. From the types of jobs we have, the income we earn, where we live etc. In societies fundamentally structured by race, it is important that we do not abandon the notion of race, but instead pioneer a revolution in the way that races are understood. In this paper, I will examine how the dominant groups in society define race in terms of biology, which leads to the notion of white privilege, which is their advantaged position in society, at the expense of other racial groups.
This article, dating back nearly seventeen years, attempts to unearth the continued issue of disparity between academic achievement amongst whites and non-whites. The article goes in great depth to discuss the issues of, higher frequency of occurrences of minorities in special education, the problems that exist related to academic disparities amongst upper middle class whites versus upper middle class non-whites, as well
Racism can be defined as “a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.” (Merriam-webster, 2015). Racism can evolve when individuals of one race feel targeted by individuals of another race. Racism affects not only adults but children and teenagers as well. Children and teenagers who are apart of the school systems are exposed to racism both inside and outside of the classroom. There have been many cases, even in these past few years, of kids in classrooms being mistreated in school. There are many forms of racism that can affect not only students but the teachers and faculty who are in schools on a day to day basis. There is no
Generally, the meanings of race and ethnicity have their starting points from sociological and biological variables. The physical appearance of a someone, for example, eye shading, skin shading, jaw/bone structure and additionally hair shading depict race while ethnicity is related to the social elements, for example, culture, convictions, heritage, and nationality. Race is a term that depicts a group of individuals with comparative characteristics. I think race is resolved by physical characteristics, for example, type of color skin, language they speak, eye shape they have, or even things, for example, blood classifications. Individuals in general are portrayed as "humankind". Race is an undeniable theme in American culture. Despite the fact
Many first and second generation Canadians are struggling to balance their ethnicity and nationality. Once one may embrace who they are, they can express and be who they truly are. David Suzuki, Amy Tan, and Jhumpa Lahiri’s have demonstrated that no matter how much a person changes themselves on the outside, they will always remain the same on the inside.
Education is a concept that is synonymous with anyone one that is living a good life. It is believed that in order to live a prosperous life that members of this society must first obtain a good college education. But how can education be considered a founding block of success when only the privileged enjoy the benefit of a proper education? A large percentage of undocumented immigrants arrive to this country because they want their kids to be able to attend a good school and receive a proper education but that is not always the case. Undocumented people arrive to this country with no money; therefore they are forced to live in low-income communities. As we have discussed in class, the schools in neighborhoods with low economic status are not as good
The intervening years since court-mandated desegregation of schools have not eradicated the existence of achievement disparities for ethnic children, especially for Latin American and African American students (McKown & Weinstein, 2008). In fact, there is an extensive body of research that suggests that students from minorities do not perform well in the current American public school system (Tyler, Boykin, & Walton, 2006). McKown and Weinstein (2008) note that one often cited contributor to the achievement gap is teacher expectations.
In today’s society, it is acknowledgeable to assert that the concepts of race and ethnicity have changed enormously across different countries, cultures, eras, and customs. Even more, they have become less connected and tied with ancestral and familial ties but rather more concerned with superficial physical characteristics. Moreover, a great deal can be discussed the relationship between ethnicity and race. Both race and ethnicity are useful and counterproductive in their ways. To begin, the concept of race is, and its ideas are vital to society because it allows those contemporary nationalist movements which include, racist actions; to become more familiar to members of society. Secondly, it has helped to shape and redefine the meaning of
Race and ethnicity are two terms that are constantly used in today’s society. Understanding these terms can help people to recognize that color of skin or color of hair does not define a person. These terms connect with history, social interaction, and the overall make up of a person. However America is constantly obsessed with labeling people by the way that they look or the way that they act. America seems to encourage the terms race and ethnicity and continue to divide people into categories. It is interesting to comprehend these terms because they are not going to disappear any time soon. Race and ethnicity are apart of America’s history and will be a part of the future.
Through out this course we have learned how the lives that we live and the person we are is impacted by a number of dimensions. These dimensions include the economy, discrimination, lack of resources and the availability to good education. These dimensions hold a lot of weight in our lives and most of them we have no control over. For some people unfortunately, they innately inherit certain disadvantages ranging from where their family comes to the color of their skin or even the neighborhood they were born into. Those factors are uncontrollable and yet still deeply effect the quality of their life. Not only do these factors have an impact on us as children they have a presence over us all the way into adulthood.