The West Nile Virus is of the Flaviviridae family and contains nearly 10,000 RNA basis. To the right is a electron Microscope image of the West Nile virus. The most serious manifestation of the West Nile virus infection is fatal encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in humans and horses, as well as mortality in certain domestic and wild birds. West Nile virus was first isolated from a febrile adult woman in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937. The ecology was characterized in Egypt in the 1950s.
The initial symptoms of Mono clear up in about 7-10 days. Lymph node swelling and fatigue usually last 2-4 weeks. Some patients might take longer to recover. Some people might not even know they have Mono and are able to go
Due to the mumps being primarily a childhood disease, about 50% of children contracted the disease prior to the introduction of the mumps vaccine (MMR – measles, mumps and rubella) in 1967 (Hunt, 2008). When infected with this virus several other symptoms other than swelling may occur. Mumps is the leading cause of deafness and it also infects the central nervous system (CNS) resulting in aseptic meningitis and sometimes severe encephalitis with some cases being fatal (Hunt, 2008 & Chamberlain, 2013). It will cause temporary defects in immune response with fever of 103 F, trouble eating or drinking, perhaps confusion and disorientation, as well as abdominal pain (Hunt 2008). Some people may experience weakness and fatigue or pain while chewing and swallowing ... ... middle of paper ... ... Chamberlain, Ph.D., Neal R. (2013).
Ebolavirons are approximately 80 nanometers in width and vary in length. They also contain seven structural proteins that are surrounded by the lipid envelope that has an attached glycoprotein. During replication, it goes through translation but during transcription it stops after one or two genes so that on the 3 prime end it is completely transcribed but the 5 prime end is not transcribed and does not possess a 5-cap. The Ebola-Zaire branch was the first to be recognized and has the highest death rate of 89 percent. The Ebola-Sudan subtype has a death rate of 53 percent, and the Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever virus as a whole having a 68 percent death rate.
Mono symptoms include fever, chills, fatigue, malaise, sore throat, head-aches, swelling of the lymph nodes (noticeable in the neck), and skin rashes. Liver inflammation may occur. Also, swelling of the upper eyelids is a common symptom. In some cases blood may be found in the urine. The throat is often red; a membrane, white to dark gray in color and resembling that of diphtheria, may be present.
Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey virus that was introduced into the human population by contaminated poliovaccines. The vaccines were produced in SV40 infected monkey cells between 1955 and 1963. The site of latent infection in humans is not known but the presence of SV40 in urine suggests the kidney as a possible site of latency. SV40 is a small DNA virus that is studied extensively because it is able to transform and immortalize multiple cell types (Ozer 2000, Saenz-Robles et al. 2001).
Spread and Symptoms Mumps is primarily a childhood disease, occurring most frequently between the ages of 5 to 9, although it was also known as a problem for soldiers during war because of the sanitary conditions and close proximity. For instance, in World War I only influenza and gonorrhea were more prevalent among the armies. It replicates inside the nose, throat, and regional lymph nodes. The virus incubates for about 14-18 days, and then a viremia occurs for about 3-5 days. During the viremia it can spread to the meninges, salivary glands, testes, ovaries and pancreas.
However, the establishment of mono is given to Sprunt and Evans. In 1921 they pointed out the mononuclear lymphocytosis that was present in each patient they treated. Two years later, Downey and McKinaly provided more details of the lymphocytes as a marker that led to the disease. (6) The idea of EBV being connected to mono came about in 1958 by Burkitt. There were some cases in Africa of young children having tumors in their jaw and dying even when the tumor was removed.
(Ogbu, O., et al, 2007). The cardiovascular system can be affected as well with most cases showing an abnormal EKG reading with changes in the T-wave and ST-segment, pericarditis, tachycardia or bradycardia, hypertension or hypotension (Magill, A. J., Ryan, E. T., Hill, D., 2013 & Soloman, T., 2013; Ogbu, O., et al, 2007). The respiratory symptoms include cough, shortness of breath and bronchitis (Ogbu, O., et al, 2007). The neurological symptoms can vary from fine tremors and confusion to much more serious symptoms such as seizures and encephalopathy (Magill, A. J., et al, 2013). Lassa Fever found in several West African countries and is considered endemic in Nigeria, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone with cases also found in Mali, Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso with blood work showing evidence of infection in Togo and Benin (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014).
Marburg virus was first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany and in Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia). A total of 37 people became ill; they included laboratory workers as well as several medical personnel and family members who had cared for them. The first people infected had been exposed to African green monkeys or their tissues. In Marburg, the monkeys had been imported for research and to prepare polio vaccine. Recorded cases of the disease are rare, and have appeared in only a few locations.