Quarks are groups of elementary particles which are the basic components of all hadrons. Quarks have some properties, like electric charge, mass, color charge and spin. There are flavors of quarks which are up quarks, down quarks, charm quarks, top quarks, strange quarks and bottom quarks. These different kinds of quarks make up protons, neutrons and baryons. And quarks also comprise mesons. Among those different kinds of quarks, up quarks and down quarks are the most common ones. Most importantly, none of those quarks can exist as a single particle, because their masses are very small. This phenomenon is called “quantum confinement” and states that quarks cannot be observed independently, only confined in hadrons.
Quark have small electric charge values, usually -1/3 or +2/3 times the elementary charge. Up, charm and top quarks have +2/3e. Down, strange, and bottom quarks have -1/3e. For example, the neutron has 0e and the proton has 1e. Two up quarks and one down quark make up a proton. Gluons force called strong nuclear force them together. Two down quarks and one up quark make up a neutron. Antiquarks have the opposite charge to their respective quark. For example, the antiquark of a down quark has a charge of +1/3e, whereas down quarks have a charge of -1/3e.
Spin a property of every elementary particle. It can…show more content… There are 2 kinds of hadrons: baryons made up of three quarks and mesons made up of one quark and one antiquark. It has been discovered in recent years that hadrons are made up of not only three valence quarks but also made of baryons, mesons, antibaryons. . Among the particles that are classified as hadrons, protons within atomic nuclei and neutrons are stable. However, hadrons are unstable under normal conditions. For example, free neutrons decay within about 611 seconds, which is their