Qualitative and Quantitative are two differentiated paradigms of research, which operate under the assumption that measured outcomes, must be proven valid and reliable. However, the distinguishing element between each paradigm resolves to the role of the researcher. Although they can be explicated by the source of the data collected, qualitative being a semantic text and quantitative being in numerical form, in the qualitative paradigm, the role of the researcher is to be an active participant within the study, lending the subjectivity of interpretation to the final measured outcome (Denzien & Lincoln, 2000). However, the quantitative approach finds the role of the researcher as an outside, objective observer, where the possibility for researcher bias is reduced, and the final measured outcome is not subject to researcher interpretations (Patton, 1996). Qualitative Research Qualitative research is a multi-dimensional method that utilizes an imperative and naturalistic approach.
Qualitative research is open-ended whereas; quantitative research is more structured. The purpose of this paper is to describe the characteristics of quantitative and qualitative research and the application within an article. What is qualitative and quantitative research? Quantitative Research Description Studies using quantitative research analyze phenomena by trends and frequencies (Al-Busaidi, 2008). The sample size is important.
Available from http://www.researchproposalsforhealthprofessionals.com/open_coding.htm(06/03/12) Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ‘quantitative analysis’ 2009, in Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, & Health Professions, Elsevier Health Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, USA Silverman, D: (2006) What is qualitative research?.
Haan & Duckworth (2012) present a unique way of studying executive-coaching outcomes through the analysis of existing quantitative studies. An investigation of the quantitative research design, analysis, and results will allow one to gain a better understanding of the quantitative research process. The foundation of the entire study starts with the strength and thought placed into how the research is designed. Quantitative Research Design Quantitative research typically involves methods that are expressed in the form of variables with the collection of data that involves numbers, closed-ended questions, graphs, and charts (Research Methodology, 2014). Haas & Duckworth (2012) research design differs from the conventional quantitative research study since it involves the review of numerous quantitative research study articles and provides a detailed overview of their findings.
(Burns & Grove 2005:23) Qualitative Research is a primarily exploratory research used to obtain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. Quantitative research method are more systematic because research problem is stated specifically, variables are specified, original set of research goals, arriving at more objective conclusions, testing hypothesis, determining the issues of causality are followed firmly, achieving high levels of reliability of gathered data, eliminating subjectivity of judgment and allowing for longitudinal measures of subsequent performance of research subjects. However, Qualitative research method is unsystematic because changing nature of the context, arriving to different conclusions, difficult to investigate causality, there will be obstacles while explaining the difference in the quality and quantity of information obtained from different respondents and arriving at different, non-consistent conclusions, researchers are required to have a high level of experience, and lacking consistency and
Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed method studies. Research in Nursing and Health, 23, 246-255. Stange, K.C. (2006). Crabtree Publishing Mixed Methods Research.
Nursing Ethics, 20(4), 426-35. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0969733012468466 Jackson, J. P., Clements, P. T., Averill, J. B., & Zimbro, K. (2009). Patterns of knowing: Proposing a theory for nursing leadership. Nursing Economics, 27(3), 149-59. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/236941216?a ccountid=13631 Kelly, P., & Crawford, H. (2013).
10-ELEMENTS OF ANALYSIS: In qualitative research the elements of analysis are words, pictures, personal observation and objects. On the contrary the quantitative research just use facts and figures based on numerical
Foundations of Nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Parker, M. E. (2005). Nursing theories & Nursing practice. p.45. http://web.ebscohost.com.library.tamiu.edu:2048/ehost/detail?sid=7cdfa487-264a-4f6f-a1f0-9dfd0797cc94@sessionmgr113&vid=1#db=nlebk&AN=145559 Serquina, P. (2010-2011).
In addition the Quantitative research favours epistemological orientation supporting natural science methods especially to positivism which highlights the utilization of objective scientific procedures used in natural sciences to study social world. Further quantitative research incorporates objectivist ontological orientation which stresses on the fact that social occurrences and related associations are independent of the social actors (Bryman & Bell: 2011, pp.11- 21). Thus quantitative research depicts researcher’s viewpoints, is more structured laid on a foundation of reliable data with scope for generalization of the