Quantitative and qualitative research are two methods to gather and synthesize data. When discussing these two research methods, one might ask what are the differences? If so, this paper answers the questions surrounding the differences including what the research involves. The purpose of the research can dictate which method would be the most beneficial. Qualitative research is open-ended whereas; quantitative research is more structured. The purpose of this paper is to describe the characteristics of quantitative and qualitative research and the application within an article. What is qualitative and quantitative research? Quantitative Research Description Studies using quantitative research analyze phenomena by trends and frequencies (Al-Busaidi, 2008). The sample size is important. A small sample could change the outcome. It could be an overrepresentation of a small subgroup within the specific population. The risk of sampling errors decrease as the sample size becomes larger. How the sample size is determined and the way participants are invited into the research is included within the write up. The data collected can be from a multitude of methods including interviews, questionnaires, attitude scales, or observational tools. When asking questions, the choices are typically closed-ended with fixed answers. The data analysis for quantitative studies includes complex language and statistical tests. The researcher identifies what statistical method was used and the results. It is commonly understood that if the research descriptive in design use descriptive statistics; while correlational studies, quasi-experimental and experimental studies use inferential statistics. Tables, charts, and graphs are displayed within the resu... ... middle of paper ... ...plore phenomena. Works Cited Al-Busaidi, Z. Q. (2008). Qualitative research and its uses in health care. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 8(1), 11-19. Anderson, C. (2010). Presenting and evaluating qualitative research. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(8). 141. Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., & Ryan, F. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.olemiss.edu/celi/Files/step-by-step-guide-to-criti-research-part-1- quantitative-reseawrch.pdf Flanagan, J. M., Carroll, D.L., & Hamilton, G. A. (2010). The long-term lived experience of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. MEDSURG Nursing, 19(2), 113-119. Pipe, T. B., Kelly, A., LeBrun, G., Schmidt, D., Atherton, P., & Robinson, C. (2008). A prospective descriptive study exploring hope, spiritual well-being, and quality of life in hospitalized patients. MEDSURG Nursing, 17(4), 247-253.
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Gelo, O., Braakmann, D., & Benetka, G. (2008). Quantitative and Qualitative Research: Beyond the Debate. Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 42(3), 266-290. doi:10.1007/s12124-008-9078-3
According to Merriam-Webster, research is defined as careful study done to report new knowledge on a topic. ("Research | Definition of research by merriam-webster," n.d.). Success in the field of Guidance and Counseling is dependent on accurate information. Counselors well versed in pertinent research make a strong impact on the clients. Counselors using research as a guide for intervention have a better understanding of the clients why and also the how to serve the client best.
Within scientific research there is always a strong debate between those that prefer quantitative methods and those who prefer qualitative ones. proponents of quantitative methods have built the standards in experimental research and in researches performed on a large number of subjects and which use sampling criteria and statistical analysis techniques. On the other side, the qualitative method uses procedures of qualitative nature both at the level of collecting the data as well as the level of analyzing them (Tagliapietra, Trifan, Raineri & Lis, 2009). The gathering data procedures include: interviews, group discussions, observations, journals; while the analysis procedures include coding, categorizations and systematic confrontation between the categories and their dimensions. Such research is often defined as an explorative one, opposite to “classical” scientific research aiming to confirm / disconfirm initial hypothesis. Among the qualitative methods used in the scientific research we can list: Focus Group, Speech Analysis, Conversation Analysis, Grounded Theory and Phenomenological Interpretative Analysis (Tagliapietra, Trifan, Raineri & Lis, 2009).
Qualitative and quantitative methods allow researchers to investigate, explore and inquire the nature of the phenomenon being studied. It is important that the researcher develops a clear understanding of the problem and design a plan to investigate it (Cresswell, 1998, para. 1). There are a variety of research methods; nevertheless, it is important to consider which research method is appropriate for the study. Qualitative research focuses on human experiences while quantitative research relies on numbers, measurements, and testing. Nevertheless, qualitative and quantitative methods use similar approaches to conduct research and collect data. For example, observations and interviews are approaches used in both research designs; however, the approaches are used and viewed otherwise. This will be discussed later in the paper.
There are many different types of methods used when it comes to research. The two that will be focused on are both quantitative and qualitative. Qualitative research is described as “interpretive techniques that seek to describe, decode, translate, and otherwise come to terms with the meaning, not the frequency, of certain phenomena; a fundamental approach of exploration, including individual depth interviews, group interviews, participant observation, videotaping of participants, projective techniques and psychological testing, case studies, street ethnography, elite interviewing, document analysis, and proxemics and kinesics; see also content analysis (Cooper & Scnieder, 2014) .” Quantitative research is a little easier to understand as it deals more with actual numbers and statistics to identify an exact amount. Quantitative research is described as “the precise count of some behavior, knowledge, opinion, or attitude (Cooper & Scnieder, 2014).” How exactly would this be used when it
Quantitative research expresses data in a numerical fashion and its main focus is to supply information and to determine relationships between variables (Guts, 2014). It is the most widely used research because it gives hard results and is quite easy to understand (Guts, 2014). Quantitative research can shape our behavior. For example, wearing a seatbelt in the car. People wear their seatbelts in the car because one, it is the law. Two, it became a law because of research that has been done, saying that wearing seatbelts protects the body more effectively when in car accidents than not wearing a seatbelt. The data is expressed numerically by showing statistics on people’s health when they have been in an accident either with a seatbelt on or off. Quantitative research is helpful when learning about unknown facts such as the importance of wearing a seatbelt.
There are many elements involved in conducting a proper research. The two general types of research designs are qualitative and quantitative. These types of designs are different in many ways. Quantitative is an objective research typically focused on numerical data. Qualitative research is subjective research focused on narrative data. This paper further elaborates on many elements that separate quantitative research from qualitative research.
On the other hand, Quantitative research refers to “variance theory” where quantity describes the research in terms of statistical relationships between different variables (Maxwell, 2013). Quantitative research answers the questions “how much” or “how many?” Quantitative research is an objective, deductive process and is used to quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and other defined variables with generalized results from a larger sample population. Much more structured than qualitative research, quantitative data collection methods include various forms of surveys, personal interviews and telephone interviews, polls, and systematic observations. Methods can be considered “cookie cutter” with a predetermined starting point and a fixed sequence of
If research and theory are inextricably linked, then one cannot understand the nature of theory without first understanding the nature of research. There are two types of research design in the scientific inquiry - qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative and quantitative research designs are the basis of the scholarly study utilized regarding the purpose of the research and recourses available for investigation. There are situations when researchers apply both types of design, as in cases when it is important to enhance internal and external validity, credibility, and reliability of the results. Both qualitative and quantitative designs have advantages and disadvantages that can either benefit the study or jeopardize the research
Qualitative and Quantitative study designs both can be beneficial in research design. They both provide valuable options for researchers in the field. These techniques can either be used separately in a research study or they can be combined to achieve maximum information. This paper will define the terms qualitative and quantitative; describe the similarities and differences between each; discuss how qualitative and/or quantitative research designs or techniques could be used in the evaluation of my proposed research; and discuss why linking analysis to study design is important.
Qualitative and quantitative research methods take different approaches to gathering and analysing information. Whether it is a qualitative or quantitative study, the research study begins with a question or series of questions. Both use rigorously designed studies to get the most accurate, detailed and complete results. Qualitative studies common methods are interviews, surveys and observation. A qualitative study aims to provide a detailed description of the study results, often using pictures and written descriptions to describe what the research revealed. A qualitative study looks at the big picture, helping researchers to narrow in on points of interest that then can be followed up on in a quantitative study. While a quantitative study has a narrower focus, it attempts to provide a detailed explanation of the study focus, along with this using numbers and statistics. And the results from a quantitative study can reveal bigger questions that call for qualitative study. Or vice versa a qualitative study may reveal at analysis that a more focus and direct approach may be needed. With both methods analysis is a key part of any study whether qualitative or quantitative.
Qualitative and quantitative researcher’s exhibited conflicting ways of approaching a research. Some researchers prefer qualitative over quantitative and vice-versa. Also, it is common for qualitative and quantitative to be used together in a research. But, both methods when carried out correctly provide good research. Plus, both methods have their own unique differences and characteristics. In this paper I will define three of these characteristics in a quantitative and qualitative research design and discuss and compare their differences. (Smith & Davis, 2010)