Social research is changing and opening its doors towards methodological strategies that are more open minded. These new strategies are becoming useful aides in scientific enhancement of knowledge. While research methodologies are evolving, there still exists hostility between research methods such as qualitative research, quantitative research, and mixed methods (Johnson & Christensen, 2008).
Qualitative methods have increased popularity over the past years along with new theoretical trends. This may have to do with paradigm shifts in our society that are causing more of a constructionist approach. This paper will further discuss its interest in qualitative studies along with validity and reliability issues in qualitative research.
What is Qualitative Research?
Applied social sciences have taken an increased interest in qualitative research due to many factors. One of the factors includes the constant association with people’s lives. Interest in improving and gaining knowledge of a specific situation through one’s practice will lead into researchable questions pertaining to qualitative research. Qualitative research design allows the research to further discover, understand, and insight perspectives of the subjects being studied. According to Jackson, Drummond, and Camara (2007), there are four characteristics that best defines the understanding of qualitative research. They are the following: focus, researcher, inductive process, and descriptive product.
Central debates found in qualitative research are the issues of reliability and validity. Unlike quantitative studies, which provide statistical evidence as a method to ensure reliability and validity, qualitative studies provide a different lens with relation to ...
... middle of paper ...
...re of a constructionist approach. Validity and reliability is important when conducting a qualitative research. Central debates found in qualitative research are the issues of reliability and validity (Anderson, 2010). A researcher needs to familiarize himself/herself with the multiple lenses, designs, and methods of qualitative research to ensure methods of reliability and validity. Strategies such as triangulation, peer examination, and audit trail will not only help in reliability, but also in credibility.
A researcher needs to familiarize himself/herself with the limitations present in any research, design, and method. This will help the researcher ensure positive possibilities in reliability and validity. It is also important to add the importance of recognizing and becoming aware of philosophical assumptions to help reduce bias throughout the research.
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysShow More
The first component of qualitative research is formulating the purpose of the study. In general, the focus of qualitative research is understanding
Initially, I will define key concepts of qualitative research and secondary analysis on qualitative data. Second, I will identify certain limitations and barriers to pur-sue secondary analysis in the order of contextual information barriers, methodo-logical barriers and ethical issues. Third, I will briefly discuss how such barriers can be overcome and why researchers should pursue secondary analysis. Doing so, I will look at using research in the pilot stage, economic reasons and method-ological advancements.
Different styles of research are employed in research to safeguard that the facts are acquired to permit examiners to find resolution to the principal queries for the study correctly, therefore, evading uncertainty ( ). Acquiring relevant proof encompasses stipulating the type of proof mandatory in answering the query. Methodological designs encompass logical complications; therefore, matters of sampling, information gathering methods, and queries are secondary to the type of method used in research. Strategies are often compared with quantitative and qualitative research methods. Research and collective studies are often observed as principal specimens of quantitative research and are evaluated compared to the flaws and strong point of numerical, examination, and quantitative research methods ( ).
CQR incorporates the elements from phenomenological approach, grounded theory as well as comprehensive process analysis. The consensual qualitative research has a number of essential components. Firstly, it includes the implication of the open-ended questions in the semi-structured techniques of data collection, which allow the consistent data 's collection across the individuals as well as in-depth examination of their experiences (Hill, 2012). Secondly, it involves several judges throughout the process of analysis of data, in order to foster numerous perspectives. Third is the consensus for arrival at judgments concerning the data 's meaning that sets aside the researchers ' biases (Hill, 2012). Fourthly, it requires at least one auditor for checking the judges primary team 's work and minimization of the effects of group thinking in the primary team. The methods of the data collection in consensual qualitative research are naturalistic and highly interactive, and include interviews and sampling (Given, 2008). However, the researchers may also compare the qualitative findings with quantitative findings for triangulation of the results. While the data analysis involves three main steps that include domains, used for segmentation of the
The frame of qualitative research is broadly within the socially constructed, advocacy /participatory theories that assert that social construction determine meaning, and therefore, there are multiple truths to discover (Parylo, 2012). Some of the data from qualitative research is collected from interviews, observations, and field notes. The researcher adds codes to the data to allow for analysis and interpretation, taking into account the context and personal values of the researcher (Parylo, 2012). Creswell (2014) notes that qua...
Qualitative research is an approach that attempts to situate an activity that locates the observer in the world by providing the study to occur in their natural setting and by attempting to make sense of, or interpret information (Denzin and Lincoln, 2005). A characteristic of qualitative research is to use a variety of empirical materials such as personal experience, interviews, and questionnaires. It is imperative to understand the task at hand and how to fully carry out the study when using a qualitative research approach in order to find out the information needed. One view of qualitative research is it involves examining individual’s experiences and documenting those experiences in detail (Jones, 2011). By documenting these observations the researcher is ensuring validity in his or her data and giving the correct creditability to those who participated in the study.
The author could have employed other methods of qualitative research such as, narrative analysis, grounded theory, discourse analysis, data display and analysis, content analysis and quantifying qualitative data and computer assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAPDAS) (Saunders et al., 2016). Nevertheless, these approaches seem cumbersome sometimes and take a long time to complete (Willig, 1999; Braun and Clarke, 2006 and Smith and Bekker,
focused on the key qualitative research methods. For each article review, a brief description, guided by Myers (2013), and a critique, guided Pratt (2009), is provided. A summary of the five articles identifying the research method, data collection technique, data analysis approach and critique is provided in Table 1. The narrative review of each article coupled with figures and tables to organize and visualize thoughts (Pratt, 2009) follows the summary table.
Liamputtong, P. & Ezzy, D., 2005, Qualitative research methods, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, Victoria, pp. 12-31.
In this paper, the author has outlined the design of a qualitative research study. The study was based on different assumptions than that of quantitative designs. It is an ethnographic research design where the researcher is the research instrument. Approaches to data collection are participation observation, interviews and written documents. In addition data analysis will be using qualitative content analysis. Issues of validity and reliability are addressed in the proposed research design. Finally, constraints such as time and budget are also recognized in the designing of the research project.
Qualitative and Quantitative study designs both can be beneficial in research design. They both provide valuable options for researchers in the field. These techniques can either be used separately in a research study or they can be combined to achieve maximum information. This paper will define the terms qualitative and quantitative; describe the similarities and differences between each; discuss how qualitative and/or quantitative research designs or techniques could be used in the evaluation of my proposed research; and discuss why linking analysis to study design is important.
Qualitative data analysis is the process of transforming data into information, information into understanding and understanding into knowledge (Davenport & Prusak, 1998). Furthermore, qualitative data analysis can be described as a blend of scientific studies and artistic style to create an innovative product. The research acts as the primary research tool, and must be able to sustain composer throughout the entire study. In addition, the researcher must be able to pay attention to the small details of the study, without losing sight of the big picture of the study (Chenail, 2012).
Qualitative research was designed as a way to be directly connected with the subjects researched. Participant researchers may choose to merely observe and collect data or to be an active participant. Covert participation has the advantage of reducing the “reactive effects” of the social setting or group (Bachman & Schutt, 2012). Most researchers who use the participation method of research will often strike a balance between participation and observation. Through participation, an observer may gain the trust of the research subjects which can provide more fruitful results. Some research may however be unethical or a violation of law. A good researcher should use prudence beforehand when crafting their research design.