Overview of Qualitative Data Analysis Qualitative data analysis is the process of transforming data into information, information into understanding and understanding into knowledge (Davenport & Prusak, 1998). Furthermore, qualitative data analysis can be described as a blend of scientific studies and artistic style to create an innovative product. The research acts as the primary research tool, and must be able to sustain composer throughout the entire study. In addition, the researcher must be able to pay attention to the small details of the study, without losing sight of the big picture of the study (Chenail, 2012). Qualitative data analysis is composed of document, observation, interviews, focus groups, and being able to discuss what is being found in each of the piece of data collected (Chenail, 2012). Qualitative data analysis can be viewed as understanding the analysis of data. For qualitative data to be successfully analyzed, the researcher must be able to maintain control of their study, be able analyze their study, analyze themselves, and be able to present this found data in various publications (Chenail, 2012).
Data Analysis Methods and Procedures
Categorical vs. Contextual Approaches Taylor-Powell and Renner (2003) recommend using …show more content…
(2013) describes content analysis and thematic analysis appropriate for researchers who wish to conduct a low level of interpretation, in contrast to phenomenology and grounded theory, where higher levels of interpretation would be required. Content analysis is defined as the various ways to analyze a text. It is the coding and categorizing approach used for gathering and interpreting large amounts of written information to localize themes, trends and patterns (Vaismoradi et al.,
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Qualitative research is one of the main types of the scientific investigation. The qualitative research seeks to explore the research 's issue from the perspectives of the involved population. Qualitative research is effective for gaining culturally specific information about particular social contexts and identifying intangible social factors. The most popular methodologies of this research are consensual qualitative research, grounded theory, phenomenology and heuristic inquiry. Since all these methods have certain differences, their comparison and contrast will be helpful for improving proficiency in qualitative research.
The three research methodology paradigms are quantitative research, qualitative research and mixed research. Each of these paradigms uses different methods for research and collects different types of data. A quantitative research relies primarily on the collection of quantitative data while a qualitative research relies on the collection of qualitative data. A mixed research involves mixing quantitative and qualitative methods. As the research for the study, “Mike: An Illustrative Case Study”, used a qualitative methodology, characteristics of qualitative research and how they relate to the particular study will be the focus of this review.
Burton states that “qualitative analysis is a detailed, focused and deep process that seeks to find meaning in social experience (Burton 2007/2010)”. Sarantakos claims “qualitative analysis adds emphasis to questions that stress ‘how’ or ‘what meaning’ is created and given to certain situations. This is done using ethnographic style, first person accounts, and biographical and autobiographical materials (Sarantakos, 2005)”.
Today the use of technology has become embedded into our daily lives. Most of western civilization has access to a piece of technology at any given point of time. In recent years, technology has started to play a significant role in the area of research. Quantitative research was quickly adapted and aided by technology due to the use of number variables, but the same was not true for qualitative research. In recent years, qualitative research was revolutionized by Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) software. Although, QDA software has a great deal of positive aspect, there are drawbacks in the utilization.
Qualitative research has gained significant recognition in the social science sphere with its holistic and purposeful pursuit in illuminating new areas for research lacking through quantitative research. (Carey, 2012; Cleary, Horsfall, & Hayter, 2014; Reeves, Kuper, & Hodges, 2008; Stevenson, Britten, Barry, Barber, & Bradley, 2000; Thyer, 2012). Qualitative research uses a variety of methodologies to explore an individual’s inner world, expand our understanding of a social phenomenon, and advance and discover new theories (Carey, 2012; Fortune, Reid, & Miller, 2013; Saldana, 2011; Thyer, 2012). Stevenson (2000) describes qualitative research as an in-depth investigation into the inner world of reasoning, decision-making and meaning. Furthermore, qualitative research takes into account the context and history that shapes presented information and ventures to understand participant’s experiences, thoughts, opinions, and feelings towards their social reality (Ivey, 2012; Nielsen, 2011; Thyer, 2012).
Qualitative research seeks to understand a social or human problem through an inquiry process. It is conducted in a natural setting and reports the views of informants in rich detail. Qualitative research strives to describe the extraordinarily complex nature of people and their perceptions of their experience in the specific social context in which the experience occurs. (Geertz, 1973). This is quite different than the paradigm of quantitative research. The raw material for qualitative research is ordinary language, as opposed to the numbers that are the raw material for quantitative research. The language may be obtained in many ways. It may be the participant’s own descriptions of him or he...
Research methodology is analogous to a kaleidoscope (Cunningham, 2000). Just as a kaleidoscope reveals different shapes and colours of objects to the viewer depending on the angle at which it is held, a methodology provides different observations on phenomena for the researcher depending on how it is employed and implemented.
Qualitative research involves the consideration of emotions and thought processes concerning certain situations, whilst quantitative data collection sets about using statistics and numbers to determine the results (Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, & Health Professions). In addition, qualitative research gives a more detailed view of a situation compared to quantitative, which only collects discrete d...
Applied social sciences have taken an increased interest in qualitative research due to many factors. One of the factors includes the constant association with people’s lives. Interest in improving and gaining knowledge of a specific situation through one’s practice will lead into researchable questions pertaining to qualitative research. Qualitative research design allows the research to further discover, understand, and insight perspectives of the subjects being studied. According to Jackson, Drummond, and Camara (2007), there are four characteristics that best defines the understanding of qualitative research. They are the following: focus, researcher, inductive process, and descriptive product.
Qualitative research is an approach that attempts to situate an activity that locates the observer in the world by providing the study to occur in their natural setting and by attempting to make sense of, or interpret information (Denzin and Lincoln, 2005). A characteristic of qualitative research is to use a variety of empirical materials such as personal experience, interviews, and questionnaires. It is imperative to understand the task at hand and how to fully carry out the study when using a qualitative research approach in order to find out the information needed. One view of qualitative research is it involves examining individual’s experiences and documenting those experiences in detail (Jones, 2011). By documenting these observations the researcher is ensuring validity in his or her data and giving the correct creditability to those who participated in the study.
Thematic analysis is espoused to be the foundational approach to qualitative analysis and methods (Saunders et al., 2016 as stated in Braun and Clarke, 2006: 78) and it is a useful method used to identify and analyse the order and patterns of qualitative data (Attride-Stirling, 2001). Qualitative research method depicts the correlation that exists between data and events, creating the pictorial representation of what one thinks a given data says (Saunders et al., 2016). They also opined that, qualitative data analysis is cogent, interactive and iterative. Also, Joana and Jill (2011) and Saunders et al (2016) postulate that, qualitative research brings meanings from words and images as opposed to numbers. However, despite its robustness and rigour of its application, it is skewed more to the interpretivist ideologies since researchers draw conclusion from participants and the hypothesis being forecasted (Joana and Jill, 2011; Saunders et al., 2016).
The rationale for our adoption of the qualitative method of data collection – the main method being the interview, backed by study of documentation and policies is based on the interactions (Blumer, 1969) premise that when the aim of the research is to understand a complex process where those involved have different perspectives on the matter in question, it makes sense to adopt a research strategy which allows these perspectives to be understood in the same terms in which the participants understand them. In this study, this approach would result in the production of a comprehensive analysis of the processes and thinking which lie behind the activities involved in the budget and innovation
Qualitative and Quantitative study designs both can be beneficial in research design. They both provide valuable options for researchers in the field. These techniques can either be used separately in a research study or they can be combined to achieve maximum information. This paper will define the terms qualitative and quantitative; describe the similarities and differences between each; discuss how qualitative and/or quantitative research designs or techniques could be used in the evaluation of my proposed research; and discuss why linking analysis to study design is important.
Qualitative and quantitative researcher’s exhibited conflicting ways of approaching a research. Some researchers prefer qualitative over quantitative and vice-versa. Also, it is common for qualitative and quantitative to be used together in a research. But, both methods when carried out correctly provide good research. Plus, both methods have their own unique differences and characteristics. In this paper I will define three of these characteristics in a quantitative and qualitative research design and discuss and compare their differences. (Smith & Davis, 2010)