“She was, in fact, the great merchant of the Mediterranean.” (Morey, 1901, para. 4) As Morey said in his “Outlines of Roman History”, “We can thus see how Rome and Carthage became rivals for the possession of the countries bordering upon the western Mediterranean Sea.” (Morey, 1901, para. 4) And though their power was the same in many aspects, the appearance of it can be observed in very different spheres. The power of Carthage was shown in her success and prosperity, but the power of Rome fully revealed in times of
Their influence grew and spread across the Mediterranean Sea and it forced the meeting of the two greatest forces of the Mediterranean Sea. It is 264 BC and hostilities between the Carthaginians and the Roman republic are on the rise. The fate of the island of Sicily hangs in balance. The Romans hunger for power and land, while Carthage wants the same. Both are powerful and rich traders and planned to stay that way.
Carthage was a very powerful city-state in northern Africa and had made a name for themselves as the leading maritime leader in the world. Maritime means they are located near the sea and have many things to do involving the ocean. The first war broke out when Rome interfered with a dispute on the Carthaginian controlled island of Sicily. The war ended with Rome controlling Corsica and Sicily. The second war started when Hannibal invaded Italy and had two signature victories at Lake Trasimene and Cannae but was eventually defeated by Roman general Scipio Aemilianus which left Rome in much control of the Mediterranean Sea and a big section of Spain.
Roman soldiers, as a result, built upon Carthaginian technology, and forged a plank to drop onto an enemy ship, in order to board it in large quantities. By 3rd century BC, the Roman Empire seized control over the coastline that was in the center of the Mediterranean Sea. This was a geopolitically-advantageous position that gave Rome an increase of wealth, as well as the ability to build a mighty navy. With the strength of their military forces, the Roman Empire was able to overcome obstacles, overpower Carthaginian soldiers and Spanish Celts, and conquer land in the
The economy began to prosper, and the fleet was rebuilt. The Romans remembered the previous wars very well, many of which hated Carthage, they wanted Carthage dead. Rome used their ally, Masinissa, to bring forward an excuse to go to war with Carthage. In 149 Carthage attacked Masinissa and Rome came to aid for their ally and declaring war on Carthage. Rome had an advantage with their military force being stronger than ever.
By the seventh and sixth centuries B.C., Greek colonies and settlements stretched all the way from western Asia Minor to southern Italy, Sicily, North Africa, and even to the coasts of southern France and Spain. These regions opened up further trade connections to the north which gave access to valuable raw materials, such as gold. Also, Greek city-states consisted of mountainous peninsula and many islands that isolated the Greeks from one another causing the development of the communities to be independent that they even fought each other to gain advantage. Later, the Greeks established colonies that spread civilizations throughout the Mediterranean world which made it more powerful and more significant. Secondly, the Ancient Greeks made huge political impact that affected the ancient and the modern world.
All were won by Rome, which consequently arose as the supreme military power in the Mediterranean Sea. The hostility of Carthage provoked Rome to build a big army and to create a powerful naval fleet. The most important generals for Carthage were Hamilcar Barca and his sons Hasdrubal and Hannibal. Rome's generals were Scipio Africanus and his grandson who was adopted, Scipio Aemilianus. First Punic War (264-241 B.C.)
Key decisive victories such as the Battle of Yorktown for example would have been simply impossible without the navy provided by France (Kennedy, Cohen, Bailey 158). This served perfectly for the Americans as without foreign military aid to consolidate their weak forces, winning the war would have been all but a dream. Analyzing the American Revolution from a greater global perspective, shows how that the birth of the U.S. was more a result of European motives play rather than it’s own desire for liberty, and independence. The colonies were used as an instrument by many powers of the Old World, to provide for their own interests. The war was fought the French Navy, Dutch and Spanish money, and Dutch supplies.
The first was the conquest of Italy, the conflict with Carthage and expansion into the western Mediterranean, and the involve ment with the domination of the Hellenistic kingdoms in the eastern Mediterranean. Rome's foreign success also had enormous repercussions for the internal development of the Roman Republic. All of the Roman Empire was great in many way they were the great builder between East and West . Constantinople was the medieval worlds greatest commercial center. The city was the chief entrepot for the exchange of products between east and west.
Can Rome 's action towards Carthage be described as defensive imperialism? Rome 's action towards Carthage throughout the Punic Wars cannot be considered defensive imperialism, due to the strong military culture, expansionist aims and profit based attitudes of Roman society. Rome demonstrated traditional imperialism by extending their power and influence through means of colonisation and military force. Rome 's objective in the Punic Wars was to strategically subordinate Carthage, to increase their level of influence and improve their position on the world stage. The economic and material gain of war during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC, was a motivating incentive for warfare for the aristocracy.