Psychological Time Orientation

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Our text book, authored by Richmond, McCroskey, and Hickson (2012), identified three psychological time orientations, pat, present, and future orientations. Past-orientation refers to people who “place high regard on the past, the reliving of past events, and cherishing past happiness” (p. 194). These types of people allow the present to shaped by past events. This orientation can be related to procrastination because, if you have a project deadline (i.e. essay or school project) but you didn’t get as good a grade on the last assignment, you may relive those moments and think that you 'll fail because thats what happened the first time around. Instead of looking at the current project as something new with new possibilities, your mind goes…show more content…
(2012) define punctuality as being “on time or a little before” (p. 202) and that “punctuality is not a form of informal time, but it is often used in the informal sense” (p 202). Apart from this, Hall suggests two different ways to define procrastination. The first is “displaced point pattern” which means that, if someone says to arrive by 6:00pm, people who view time as displaced will show up before 6:00pm. These people will arrive ranging from 5:30-5:57pm while most of them will arrive around 5:55pm. People view time as fixed and plan accordingly. They are the ones who do not like to be late and, even if they arrive thirty minute prior, they have peace of mind about not being late. The second definition is “diffused point pattern.” People in this category would arrive between 5:55 and 6:15pm. Individuals in this category do not view time as fixed rather as a rough estimation as to when to arrive. They could be considered those who arrive “fashionably late” but still close to the original start time. Though Americans can be classified as a culture that values time and promptness, there are still those who fall under this second definition of…show more content…
One culture might view time as an absolute, you must be on time to meetings and meet deadlines, while another might view time as fluid and punctuality may not be as big a deal. They gave the example that in Africa, the Middle East, and South America, they don’t work in minutes and seconds like we in America do. Instead, they work in blocks of time (mornings, afternoon, half-a-day, ect.) so they place less emphasis on the exact time it takes to complete a project rather, what they can get done within the desired block of time. Another example they gave was France which, as they put it, is a cultural anomaly. They said that in this culture, punctuality is not a high priority. Being late to appointments, meetings, maybe even a doctors office would not offend the person you’re meeting as it would here in the States. However, punctuality is very important in regards to food and restaurant reservations. This anomaly occurs since the French place high importance on food and food related events. If you arrive late to a reservation, it is viewed as an insult to culinary
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