The aim of this essay is to discuss 3 of the major theoretical schools within counselling which will be both explored and critically reflected upon. The 3 schools in focus are the Humanistic approach, the Psychodynamic approach and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Due to wording restrictions, there will be a focus on one key approach within each school, which will be assessed in terms of their contributions and counsellor-client relationship. The first school of counselling to be discussed in the Psychodynamic approach. Strongly rooted in the Psychoanalytical approach (Freud, 1890-1939, cited in Freud, 1961), the Psychodynamic approach is widely recognized as being developed by Jung, Adler and Klein (Guntrip, 1995). The approach if often …show more content…
The concept of unconscious conflicts being responsible for behaviour, continue to underpin the Psychodynamic theory, which led to the development of the transference technique to attempt to bring the unconscious conflicts into the client’s conscious awareness. The transference treatment (Kernberg, 1984) has been strongly supported in terms of its effectiveness and efficacy data, despite Freud’s initial fear of negative feelings amongst clients (Spotnitz, 1985). Some issues arose over the years with countertransference; most mental health professionals have been taught to avoid all subjective countertransference feelings and only use objective countertransference. This is where the counsellor only works from information given by the client, which has been shown to be key to better understanding the client both emotionally and psychologically (Rathe, …show more content…
For example, individual’s naturally transfer feelings, for example, from their parents to their partner or children (Jung, 1983). However, transference and countertransference in the therapeutic setting are, although still often naturally occurring, often encouraged in the Psychodynamic approach. Transference and countertransference are endeavored to be paid attention to, to allow the counsellor to help a client discover aspects of their unconscious that may be causing certain pschological difficulties (Praskoa, 2010). However, there is a somewhat strong importance placed on recognizing and working through the transference with a client, as it may lead to a deterioration in the therapeutic relationship, leading to little progress with the treatment (Clarkson, 2003). This therapeutic relationship within the Psychodynamic approach is very important; the counsellor must maintain an equal relationship with the client and provide unconditional acceptance with a trusting relationship (Mann, 1997). This allows for the counsellor to work ethically with the client and to build rapport, allowing the client to speak openly and honestly about their
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Countertransference first introduced by Freud, “as a therapist’s unconscious reaction to a patient’s transference” (Dass-Brailsford, pg. 293, 2007). This concept has since become known as a normal emotional reaction to a client. This reaction that comes from the therapist is a resolved or unresolved conflict within the therapist (Dass-Brailsford, 2007). This has nothing to do with the client but something the client said or did triggered the therapist. If this goes unnoticed, it can be detrimental to the client’s recovery. The therapist may begin to overidentify with the client and lose their sense of hope (Dass-Brailsford, 2007).
Sigmund Freud was a very intriguing man; his philosophies and ideas have contributed in today’s medical as well as mental practices in various ways. Freud was a trendsetter when it came to psychoanalytic, and his theories as well as his practices changed the world of psychology, and some of his ideas may have caused controversy in the public views yet it doesn’t change the fact that Freud open the doors to future psychology professionals in abundance. In this paper I will discuss Freud’s Origins and education. I will also summarize his career on the development of psychoanalysis. Last but not least I will discuss his theories that have fallen out of favor with many modern psychologists as well as my believes in why did it occurred?
The client had developed a dismissive attachment style characterized by two coexisting, but conflicting internal working models. The first working model was a conscious model in which she viewed herself as capable and strong and others as insufficient and needy. The second internal working model was unconscious and refers to her internal belief that she was flawed, inadequate and dependent on others. By validating and gaining insight into the client’s subjective experience, we were able to work on the client’s ability to tolerate the anxiety of her need for connection and the lack of safety she felt in her relational world to express that need. Using my own countertransference and making enactments explicit, we could challenge these internal working models and begin to explore new ways of being. Slowly, she was able to experience a new way of understanding her relational needs, tolerate the grief of lack of attunement from her attachment figures, and develop more intrapsychic space for her affective
Also, psychoanalytic therapy is made to help the patient uncover unconscious conflicts, so that the patient can get insight to the real source of their problems. This therapy usually took between 7-10 years to fully get and develop an understanding of communication between the patient and the therapist, so that the patient is able to completely open up to the therapist and be able to uncover their sources of problem, together with the therapist. Basically, in this therapy a lot of the motivations for behavior are the unconscious parts of our mind doing it. First, the unconscious issues that are affecting the behavior have to be uncovered and the way they are uncovered is by dream interpretation, Freud believed dreams were the road to the unconscious. These dreams are made up of two parts the manifest content or the actual plot of the dream, and the latent content, which are the unconscious issues that show up in a symbolic form in these dreams. Also free association plays a key part in this first step, when the therapist allows the patient to talk about whatever they are thinking about at that moment or whatever they feel like talking about, this helps to reduce inhibition and can basically help the therapist to get an idea any themes that the patient may be speaking of. Although, sometimes resistance can occur with the patient when therapists ask them about certain topics in their lives, they will show an unwillingness to talk about the topic that’s mentioned, which they do not like. The next step is to bring those issues that are now in the unconscious level to the conscious level. For this to happen transference has to occur, which is the emotions which are surrounding the unconscious issues surfacing up into the therapy sessions. The last and final step in
“Exiles are the highly vulnerable, sensitive parts of us that were most hurt by emotional injuries in the past.” Thereby, people attempt to disconnect from these painful emotions and memories in order to never experience them again. This leads to other inner entities becoming managers of those emotions. For example, a child that was abused by a family member in the middle of the night in their bedroom may as an adult be taken back to their sense of fear when their partner mistakenly awakens them in the middle of the night. Their managers would be activated to control the environment and suppress their feelings. However, “When the managers fail to control the exiled emotions, extreme behaviors emerge, such as addictions, binges, rages and anger, and Schwartz refers to them as firefighters.” This is where a conflict between married couples can emerge requiring intervention. The husband has no idea what his wife is feeling in that moment and believes her reaction or requirements are unrealistic. Yet through IFS therapy, the care seekers can come to acknowledge the real emotion at hand and as Schwarts says, “They stop berating themselves and instead, get to know, rather than try to eliminate, the extreme inner voices or emotions that have plagued them.” By addressing these emotions, clients can learn to lead themselves and see their
Psychodynamic theory (PDT) is a successor to psychoanalysis. PDT is an accumulation of therapies and approaches that have been developed over time. Psychoanalysis uses the concept that the unconscious mind is at the core of all our neuroses, and that these neuroses are very often rooted in childhood experience and or upbringing (Freud, 2003). Ego state theory defines the unconscious mind as ego's states, and uses these states to allow the patient to gain insights for themselves that are linked to the original problem they presented to the therapist (Emmerson, 2007). Historically sometimes the interpretation of dreams would also be used by a therapist, but the best understanding would often be gained from a very in depth knowledge of client's history even back to his/her child hood.
It is the past experiences and feelings the therapist may have and are reflected towards the client during therapy. The therapist may respond cold, annoyed, and anger towards the client. Further, it is recommended for the therapist to discover their own unconscious feelings and overcome them by a humility which creates a healing process to strengthen the therapeutic alliance with their client. Not all countertransferences are unconscious feelings towards the client, some countertransference will help the therapist identify and gather information about the client's
Moreover, unconditional positive regard for clients is an effective and efficient way to build and maintain the therapeutic alliance with clients. It is key to the therapeutic alliance and in maintaining that safe space that clients feel like they can be their true and authentic selves and bring whatever is on their minds and hearts to the counseling session and know that they will not be rejected, ignored, or invalidated. The therapeutic relationship is central to the process of counseling. This author asserts that the counselor’s role within the therapeutic relationship is to provide a sounding board for the client. To reflect, empathize, and dig deeper to bring greater awareness and insight to the client.
The therapist must anticipate that Shelia will experience transference this can be used as a tool to help the client develop further awareness of why she behaves the way she does. “This analysis of the transference helps the client to achieve deeper insight into his or her past experiences and how they may still be affecting and influencing present relationships and experiences,” (Tan, 2011, p.49). However, the therapist should anticipate that the transference can cause a negative response since her father was distant and not involved in the family. Especially, that father’s are traditionally viewed as the protector and Shelia was not shielded by her father from her uncle. Hence, the therapists ought to be aware of his non-verbal’s and
Effective counselors or therapist must be open to change which allows them to learn the severity of the patient’s problem and to adjust to these changes (Corey, G. 2014). Practicing truth, honesty and the use of ethical behavior is what the client needs to believe in their therapist. Each of these qualities can be a benefit to the client’s course of getting well and to prevent problems from worsening. One of the reasons listening and patients are beneficial to the client is because there is a need on behalf of the client/patient to know that the counselor understands what they may be experiencing or the trauma they’re going through and what they have told there therapist. This is important to summarized their input and process all of the giving information in moving towards a positive
Humanistic psychology surfaced in middle of the 20th century in response to the predominant views about human behavior at the time. Humanistic psychology argued against the notion that the subconscious drives human behavior and therefore rejected theories of psychoanalysis and behaviorism, both deterministic in nature. Humanistic psychologists regarded both these theories as pessimistic because they highlighted only on painful emotions and that personal choice was not taken into consideration. Humanistic psychology has holistic view of the individual and emphasizes basic humans needs of fulfillment and happiness. Positive psychology is a more recent area of psychology that studies how to encourage individuals and communities to succeed.
Consequently, success of analysands’ work of speaking through free association may be high and may enhance the therapeutic relationship. The therapist genuine responsiveness to the needs and fears of the client can be the important component in building interpretive process (Ornstein & Ornstein, 2015). Nonetheless, the therapist responsiveness may be ineffective if the clients traumatic experience level is high and the client is unable to build a relationship with the therapist. The disconnection between therapist and client may result to ineffective treatment.
In another technique applied in Psychodynamic therapy approach where a client’s past is brought in, psychodynamic therapists’ main goal is to understand or relate the past with the present. Furthermore, the therapists also seek to illustrate to the client how his or her past can claim its position in the present (Shelder 2010). According to his review, it is important then to understand that the only purpose the past can have in the therapy is to illuminate the current psychological issues. The Ultimate goal in Psychodynamic therapy approach is assisting the individuals in parting from the negatives of past and helping him or her transitioning to a life that is more
This essay will choose one of the three main approaches in counselling psychology. And comment on how and why you understand it to be effective. How has this approach developed over time? Who were the main practitioners responsible for creating this approach? The essay will explore What does it offer which is different to the other two main approaches the essay will also Consider aspects such as the therapeutic relationship versus the importance of techniques in bringing about positive change in the client (Relation ship) between Clint the therapist .Therapy