Psychodynamic Research

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The aim of this essay is to discuss 3 of the major theoretical schools within counselling which will be both explored and critically reflected upon. The 3 schools in focus are the Humanistic approach, the Psychodynamic approach and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Due to wording restrictions, there will be a focus on one key approach within each school, which will be assessed in terms of their contributions and counsellor-client relationship. The first school of counselling to be discussed in the Psychodynamic approach. Strongly rooted in the Psychoanalytical approach (Freud, 1890-1939, cited in Freud, 1961), the Psychodynamic approach is widely recognized as being developed by Jung, Adler and Klein (Guntrip, 1995). The approach if often …show more content…

The concept of unconscious conflicts being responsible for behaviour, continue to underpin the Psychodynamic theory, which led to the development of the transference technique to attempt to bring the unconscious conflicts into the client’s conscious awareness. The transference treatment (Kernberg, 1984) has been strongly supported in terms of its effectiveness and efficacy data, despite Freud’s initial fear of negative feelings amongst clients (Spotnitz, 1985). Some issues arose over the years with countertransference; most mental health professionals have been taught to avoid all subjective countertransference feelings and only use objective countertransference. This is where the counsellor only works from information given by the client, which has been shown to be key to better understanding the client both emotionally and psychologically (Rathe, …show more content…

For example, individual’s naturally transfer feelings, for example, from their parents to their partner or children (Jung, 1983). However, transference and countertransference in the therapeutic setting are, although still often naturally occurring, often encouraged in the Psychodynamic approach. Transference and countertransference are endeavored to be paid attention to, to allow the counsellor to help a client discover aspects of their unconscious that may be causing certain pschological difficulties (Praskoa, 2010). However, there is a somewhat strong importance placed on recognizing and working through the transference with a client, as it may lead to a deterioration in the therapeutic relationship, leading to little progress with the treatment (Clarkson, 2003). This therapeutic relationship within the Psychodynamic approach is very important; the counsellor must maintain an equal relationship with the client and provide unconditional acceptance with a trusting relationship (Mann, 1997). This allows for the counsellor to work ethically with the client and to build rapport, allowing the client to speak openly and honestly about their

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