Sigmund Freud’s main contribution to this new field of studying personality was in the area of the understanding the unconscious, an aspect of the mind to which, he claimed, we did not have ready access to, but was the source of our actions and behavior. Freud believed the human mind was divided into three parts: the id, ego, and super-ego. The id is man’s (generic meaning, referring to both sexes) instinctual, primitive, and hedonistic urges for pure pleasure, which the id was bent on experiencing, without regard to any consequences. The super-ego is man’s senses of morality, first brought on by experiences with authoritative figures and parents, which basically hold ideas of what is right and wrong, and is almost a direct paradox to the id. The ego, which can be seen as the mediator between the id and the super-ego, takes into account the activities of the external world, and attempts to invoke some balance among all three parts of the mind, with failure resulting in neurosis of some kind.
Freud, as one of the pioneers of modern psychology, and the developer of one of the most comprehensive theories of personality, outlined new methods for understanding human behavior. His development of psychoanalysis blazed the trail for countless other psychologists and provided the building blocks for the development of a variety of theories. The evolution of modern psychology evolved from Freud’s deterministic theories and was further developed by his colleague Alfred Adler, who added a social component to the understanding of human behavior. Adler branched away from Freud’s fixation on sexual urges and used his own tragic experience to formulate the idea that humans are driven not by conflict, but instead by the fear of inadequacy. Adlerian therapy focused on using the relationship of the counselor to the patient and redeveloping one’s view of the past, existentialists built upon that foundation and incorporated philosophy to extend the theory of individualism further to encompass a broader theory of universal existence.
Valuable knowledge was achieved in this quest. But if something was gained, something was also lost: The "First Force" systematically excluded the subjective data of consciousness and much information bearing on the complexity of the human personality and its development. The "Second Force" emerged out of Freudian psychoanalysis and the depth psychologies of Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Carl Jung, Melanie Klein, Otto Rank, Harry Stack Sullivan and others. These theorists focused on the dynamic unconscious - the depths of the human psyche whose contents, they asserted, must be integrated with those of the conscious mind in order to produce a healthy human personality. The founders of the depth psychologies believed that human behavior is principally determined by what occurs in the unconscious mind.
DOES FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATION OF THE PSYCHE TURN CIVILIZED EXISTENCE INTO SOMETHING PROBLEMATIC? The question I have chosen is “Does Freud’s psychoanalytic interpretation of the psyche turn civilized existence into something problematic?” This question is essentially asking whether what Freud believes about the human psyche (or mind) contradict a belief in an harmonious society, and therefore is civilised existence essentially nothing but a dilemma. I will attempt to answer this question by drawing on what Freud postulated about the psychical. This will then be used to explain why the ‘human psyche’ is on a constant quest for ‘the whole’, or satisfaction, and how this only leads only to constant discontent and an unconscious drive for self-destruction, known as the ‘death instinct.’ Firstly, Freud proposed many theories about the psyche, the basis of which being the segmenting of the psychical into three sections: the conscious, the unconscious and the preconscious. The conscious is the section of the mind containing thoughts that we are aware of.
It contains the most basic primitive impulses and demands satisfaction driven by our libido, our sexual energy. The ego is the second apparatus of the mind, and is created by interactions between the id and the super-ego. Again in the iceberg imagery it lays just under the surface in the topography of pre-consciousness – material that can easily be recalled. It has the task of... ... middle of paper ... ...re, through psychoanalysis, is to help the patient become aware of unresolved conflicts in the unconscious mind and to confront them directly. It may be said to be a form of self-understanding.
This attitude reflects the commonly-held view amongst contemporary scientists that Freud's theories are unscientific. In this essay, I aim to argue that while Fish makes a valid point about Freud's use of the unconscious as a rhetorical device, to consider it as only a rhetorical device and to dismiss its importance as a scientific concept is not only unjustified, but also impractical in psychological theories of the mind. Freud's theories, I argue, are no less scientific than other theories in science. Before I assert my own arguments concerning this matter, I shall examine Fish's position in greater detail, in order to understand the extent of his claim. A rhetorical device, according to Fish, "is entirely constructed and stands without external support", and "that insofar as it has been installed at the centre of a structure of conviction it acquires the status of that which goes without saying and that against which nothing can be said".
Foundational thought is concerned with the theories of knowledge that are based on a certain belief. In psychology, the fathers of psychology made a great contribution to the thoughts and knowledge they made and they are behind the knowledge of psychology in place. Many fathers of psychology have made a remarkable contribution to the subject although their arguments are facing criticism by modern psychologists. Sigmund Freud is one of the founders of psychology, and he came up with the theory of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic in the field of psychology. This school of thought is about the-the unconscious mind on a person’s behavior, and he believed that human beings are composed of three elements the ego, the ID and the superego.
The phenomenon introduced by Wundt into psychology was the experimental dimension of conducting exploration under controlled settings, presenting it as a feasible investigational science. His theory and thought structure description would further be enhanced and promoted by a staunch student, Titchener, who furthered the theorem under a psycho-representation of structuralism (McLeod, 2008). Wundt's tool of introspection in emotional trials had got critiqued with time as a non-scientific module, even with science-methods deploying it in study by latter psychologists. The ou... ... middle of paper ... ...w.simplypsychology.org/wundt.html Plucker, J. (2013, November 7).
According to psychoanalysis approach, a healthy person psychologically is the person who can provide the balance between Id, ego and superego. The disorder of this psychology affects the balance adversely. According to Freud, the instinctual aspects of our mental way of life must be held accountable for the two impulses. These are sexual and aggressive impulses. (Brenner, 1977) ın other words, these are the instincts of “eros” and “thanatos”.
The id is an entirely unconscious and instinctual layer of an individual and operates on what is known as the “pleasure principle”, meaning it is constantly seeking immediate satisfaction. The ego is the component of the self that deals with reality and operates on the reality principle, which tries to satisfy the id’s needs in a much more socially and morally acceptable way. The superego is the last part to develop and this is what individuals learn from their surroundings, like society and the people ... ... middle of paper ... ...oducing the idea of unconscious layers to an individual you show that there is more to a self than meets the eye. The incorporation of time and an ever-changing human shined light on how we are not only affected physically by time, but our self is also impacted. The past’s influence on the present is an important aspect in keeping the individual unique.