Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children Supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Or

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2.1 International Instruments 2.1.1 Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children Supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime /2000 This Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking Especially in Women and Children Supplements the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime which is adopted in 2000 by United Nations General Assembly. The purposes of the Protocol are to prevent and combat trafficking in persons, to protect and assist the victims of that trafficking, and to promote cooperation among state parties in order to achieve these objectives. To that end, the Trafficking in Persons Protocol approaches to combating human trafficking, as its provisions can be broadly characterised as relating to the protection of victims, the prosecution of perpetrators and the prevention of human trafficking. Under Article 5 of the Protocol requires State parties to adopt legislative or other measures which establish that Trafficking in Persons amounts to a criminal offence as defined in Article 3. Imposes an obligation to prosecute trafficking offences. However, the Protocol does not address the issue of criminal sanctions, which is left at the discretion of individual nations. Protocol requires State parties to criminalise the offence of trafficking in persons but it does not impose any obligations with respect to related conduct. Focusing on the act of trafficking and targeting individual offenders is seen as unnecessarily limiting the Protocol and ignoring the critical role of public officials in facilitating and tolerating the crime, such as corruption as an aggravating factor in trafficking offences, network offenders and governme... ... middle of paper ... ...that have already ratified the original treaty and also Optional Protocol has its own ratification mechanism independent of the treaty it complements. So that States must independently choose whether or not to be bound by a protocol. For those non parties of the CRC, the Optional Protocols to the CRC do however permit non-states parties to ratify or accede to them. For example, according to UNICEF the United States of America, which has not ratified the Convention, has ratified both of the Optional Protocols. In relation to Ethiopia The two Optional Protocols are currently being reviewed with the aim of being ratified. Even if Ethiopia has not ratified the two Optional Protocols, these core obligations can be supplemented by other international and regional standards amongst other CRC, ICCPR, ICESCR, African charter and ACRWC are illustrated as follow.

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