Though cloning is not where it was predicted to be today by people in the 1960’s it is still very advanced with cloning being used by scientists often in experiments. The term cloning refers to many different processes that are used to create genetically identical copies of a biological being. The copied material, which has the exact same genetic makeup as the original, is called a clone. The term cloning describes a number of different processes that can be used to produce genetically identical copies of a biological entity. The copied material, which has the same genetic makeup as the original, is referred to as a clone.
The first type of cloning known as molecular cloning concentrates on making identical copies of DNA molecules. This type of cloning is also known as gene cloning, and/or Recombinant DNA technology. The second type of cloning is called organism cloning, also known as reproductive cloning. Organism or reproductive cloning involves making an identical copy of an entire organism. This is the type of cloning that was successfully used in 1996 creating "Dolly the sheep."
Even Dolly the sheep had some defects and she did not live a normal life span that a sheep should have. Humans have not been cloned successfully yet despite the rumors. People have religious beliefs either against cloning or supporting cloning. Some people believe it is wrong because researchers are playing god and some support it thinking it can save millions of lives by testing on the clone cells. Either way researchers still have a long way to go in order to be able to clone humans.
This includes anything from heart disease to blindness. Ailments mean an illness, typically a minor one. Cloning techniques are processes done in a laboratory that produces offspring that are genetically identical to the donor parent. Artificial twinning and somatic cell nuclear transfer creates clones from an adult animal. There are two variations
The resultant recombinant DNA “construct” is usually designed to express the protein(s) that are encoded by the gene(s) included in the construct, when present in the genome of a transgenic animal. Because the genetic code for all organisms is made up of the same four nucleotide building blocks, this means that a gene makes the same protein whether it is made in an animal, a plant or a microbe. Genetic engineering also known as genetic modification, is a direct manipulation of a genome with the use of biotechnology. Genomes are able to removed by using a nuclease, an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bond between the nucleotide subunits of nucleic acids. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by isolating and copying the genetic material that is desired by using molecular cloning methods.
She was the first animal to be cloned with an adult somatic cell by using the process of nuclear transfer. She was born on July 5 1996, lived to the age of six and died after being diagnosed with lung disease called Jaagsiekte. (First Cloned Sheep Dolly Dies at 6 page 1). This is a common disease in sheep caused by retrovirus (First Cloned Sheep Dolly Dies at 6 page 1). There were many unsuccessful clones before this, like the tadpole in 1952, goats, cows, mice, pigs, cats, rabbits and a gaur.
The idea of the possibility of cloning has long interested scientists from all over the world. The ability to create another life without the need to reproduce, simply a petri dish and some cells, is something that has been attempted to be done for decades. There are endless possibilities of the uses that cloning could bring, and it excites many and equally terrifies others. In was in 1997 when there was a big breakthrough of cloning occurred: the “birth” of Dolly the ewe. Dolly was cloned from an adult sheep in Scotland.
Genetic Engineering Today "Ever since James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the structure of DNA three decades ago, scientists have been experimenting with altering the genetic makeup of living matter to transform plants, animals, and microscopic organisms. There is no end to the positive things genetic engineering can accomplish" (McAuliffe 16). But are there more negative entities to genetic engineering than positive? This essay will examine the question "What is genetic engineering? ", the moral issues concerning genetic engineering, and finally relate these topics to the formation of "the creature" in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein.
Introduction The first successful cloning of a mammal, the sheep named Dolly, was arguably one of the most celebrated scientific achievements of the past decade. The cloning of Dolly brought to the forefront a longstanding debate about cloning human beings. The possibility of cloning a human being will have great significance especially in the healthcare industry since previously unachievable operations could now be feasible especially with the prospect of a new way of creating stem cells which possess the ability to treat heart diseases, cancer, and other daunting diseases. Despite this promising future that cloning purports to forecast for the human race, the research projects have been met with fierce opposition from lawmakers to clergy men. Most of the opposition is on ethical grounds and while McLaren retorts that there is nothing unethical about using technology to save lives, opposition groups are far from being appeased.
In this essay, I will define cloning and explain its process of being done. Then, I will touch on the attempts made by various scientists and the reasons behind their failure. Lastly, I will explain the different views on cloning in detail. Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies and every single bit of their DNA is identical. It is said to be done by the use of the nucleus of an egg and selected DNA from the one being cloned.