Properties of Matter At the Lambda Point

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Absolute heat is speculated to be 1.41678571×10^32 kelvins, a blisteringly high number. At that temperature conventional physics begin to break down and stop having relevant effects. However in order to better understand the largest theoretical achievable temperature, we must also discuss the opposite: absolute zero. They are both very important, and hold untold untold possibilities, which may revolutionize many of the materials we use today. The concept of absolute zero, is very old and was first proposed by Robert Boyle, an Irish chemist and physicist, who mentioned it in his work New Experiments and Observations touching Cold published in 1665. He was the first one to articulate the idea about the lower limit of temperature he called primum frigidum which was reasonably well accepted among naturalists of his time. Guillaume Amontons, the French physicist, in 1702 using reading of improved air thermometer, determined that at the absolute lowest temperature would be -240°C. This number was improved and further lowered by Johann Heinrich Lambert, another pioneer of the air thermometer, who set the theorized temperature at -270°C. However, not all of the physicists agreed on these estimations. For example, John Dalton chose temperatures as low as −3000°C as absolute zero. when he published his work in 1808 in Chemical Philosophy. Then in 1848, Lord Kelvin established a new scale not based on any elements or compounds but establishing the ultimate cold as the lowest temperature achievable. The unit of measure was named after him, Kelvin(s). In Celsius its equivalent the number is determined as −273.15 °C. Today, cryocoolers and laser cooling are being used in attempt to break the record of 100pK (0.000 000 000 1K) which was ... ... middle of paper ... ...ury Science. Toronto: A.A. Knopf Canada, 2005. Print. Murthy, Ganpathy, Daniel Arovas, and Assa Auerbach. Superfluids and Supersolids on Frustrated Two-dimensional Lattices. Physical Review B, 1 Feb. 1997. .PDF. Reeves, Hubert. The Hour of Our Delight: Cosmic Evolution, Order, and Complexity. New York: W.H. Freeman, 1991. Print. Hartmann, Matthias, et al. "High-resolution molecular spectroscopy of van der Waals clusters in liquid helium droplets." Science 272.5268 (1996): 1631-1634. Various. "Cold." Encyclopedia Britannica. 11th ed. Gutenberg.org. Web. 27 Jan. 2013. . Packard, Richard E., and Stefano Vitale. "Principles of superfluid-helium gyroscopes." Physical Review B 46.6 (1992): 3540. Hadhazy, Adam. "How Engineers Revamped Spitzer to Probe Exoplanets." NASA. NASA, 13 Sept. 2013. Web. 07 Jan. 2014.
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