Microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, protists, and autotrophic organisms. Viruses, although not an organism, are often included in the study of microbes. In this lab, three types of bacteria; bacillus, spirillum, and coccus; were observed and compared to eukaryotic cheek cells. This research question successfully related to students’ classroom lectures about the topic of microbiology. Comparing the size of prokaryotic microbes to eukaryotic cells gave students a better understanding of the classification of organisms, including the three domains as well as the six kingdoms, and the relative size and structural characteristics of each classification.
The concept of microbiology emerged in the late 1600s when Antonie van Leeuwenhoek first observed bacteria and other microorganisms using a single lens microscope. The microscope manufactured and used by Leeuwenhoek served as a catalyst for the field of microbiology, exposing a whole world of microorganisms. With the utilization of tools like microscopes and methods like ink staining, scientist have been able to step into a seemingly invisible world and note the contribution of microorganisms to human life. These tools and methods have been essential to the discovery that DNA was the macromolecule charged with the transformational ability of genetic information in bacterial cells The first experiment to establish the
These microscopic organisms reproduce quickly, sometimes even exponentially. In the experiment today, my class is observing and measuring data of how different factors can influence the rate at which bacteria grows. We will use Escherichia coli (E. coli) as our bacteria. It is a Gram-negative bacterium that resides in the intestines of humans (Laboratory Experiences, 34). Before you can fully understand the experiment and it purpose, it is important to understand the phases bacteria go through when reproducing in various media.
Introduction The gram stain experiment is used mostly to help identify bacteria inside certain products. Also, the gram stain was being used since 1884 to separate bacteria into groups. The gram stain is separated based on the reaction on the stain. Bacteria reacts based on being tested with gram positive, gram negative and gram variable. Also, based from the scientist knowledge the response that occurs from cells to the stain occurs, because of the difference in the complexity and chemistry of the bacterial cell wall.
Most useful to the fields of biochemistry and molecular genetics is the use of these methods in gene identification. First a gene must be isolated from an organism. This can be accomplished using restriction enzymes, cutting the DNA into pieces and then inserting these pieces into plasmid vectors, creating a library of genes. These vectors are then inserted into bacteria, which proceed in replicating the genes and producing their products. Any bacteria producing the protein of interest are isolated, using radiolabeled antibodies which bind specifically to the target protein.
Medicinal biochemists also search for chemical explanations for problems, do drug design and evaluation, cure diseases, and increase immunity to certain illnesses (15). Nutrition is also a field of biochemistry. Nutritional biochemists study the chemical effects of food on the bodies of the creatures consuming it. In nutritional biochemistry, diet is compared with diseases, like heart disease, to see if diet affects the disease. Last, but not least, biochemists can work in the field of agriculture.
Introduction In this lab, we observed different prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and then we observed a termite gut to see the different unicellular microorganisms that it contained. The purpose of this lab is to observe living and prepared bacterial cells, then describe their morphology, observe and describe the primary features of the eukaryotic cell, and to investigate and observe the organisms involved in a symbiotic relationship. By observing these things, we are hoping to find out what we should expect to see in yogurt bacteria. In order to predict this, we must first know the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are organisms that do not have a cell nucleus, or any other membrane-bound organelles.
Third find out what happens when bacteria is present in locations where they are not normally at. Lastly, to inform people about the important role these bacteria have to help the human bodies immune system, and protection against other microorganisms. This experiment deals with isolating bacteria from the throat, skin and rectum is optional. This bacteria will be grown in different agar plats. Different agar plates are used to grow specific
Biochemical testing helps us identify the microorganism present with great accuracy. The tests used in this experiment are rudimentary but are fundamental starting points for tests used in medical labs and helps students attain a better understanding of how tests are conducted in a real lab setting. The first step in this process is to use gram-staining technique to narrow down the unknown bacteria into one of the two big domains; gram-negative and gram-positive. Once the gram type is identified, biochemical tests are conducted to narrow down the specific bacterial species. These biochemical tests are process of elimination that relies on the bacteria’s ability to breakdown certain kinds of food sources, their respiratory abilities and other biochemical conditions found in nature.
Contrary to popular belief antibiotics do not work against viruses like those that cause the common cold. Antibiotics are broken down into different classifications because antibiotics are selective killers, which mean that it has been manufactured to kill a certain malicious bacteria strain. Each antimicrobial differs from one another by their physical and chemical properties and by their antibacterial spectrum of activity. The different kinds of antibiotics fight off the infection in different ways. The different ways the antibiotic functions is by inhibiting the bacterial cell from metabolizing, by preventing the bacteria’s cell wall synthesizing, by creating a permeable membrane of the bacteria cell, or by suppressing nucleic acid transcription and replication.