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Production of anti-apoptotic Proteins by cancer cells

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Apoptosis is a form of cell death which is an essential process for growth and development of multi cellular organism and removes damaged cells to prevent inflammation (Madeo, Frohlich et al. 1997). In addition, apoptosis can be morphologically characterized by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and formation of apoptotic complex (Madeo, Frohlich et al. 1997,Qi, Kim, et al. 2013).The main biochemical characteristics of apoptosis include caspase activation and DNA fragmentation (Madeo, Frohlich et al. 1997, Du, Fang et al. 2000). Apoptosis is induced by various physiological or toxic signals such as chemotherapeutics, DNA damage, ultraviolet irradiation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Impaired cell death is a characteristic of cancer cells, determining their resistance to apoptotic signals, (Adams and Cory 2007, Hartman and Czyz 2013) which is one of the six essential alterations in cell biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumours (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011, Hartman and Czyz 2013) and remains critical in effective cancer treatment strategies (Adams and Cory 2007).
Two major apoptotic paths have been defined; death receptor (extrinsic) and mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway and they are usually switched on in a stimulus-dependent manner (Steel, Doherty et al. 2004, Adams and Cory 2007, Hartman and Czyz 2013).Such that extra-cellular death inducing signals via Fas receptors and various intra cellular signals result in activation of caspases (Du, Fang et al. 2000) (caspase 8 and 9) respectively. Intrinsic apoptotic pathway is widely implicated as a barrier to cancer pathogenesis than extrinsic apoptosis pathway (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011).
In order to understand anti-apop...

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