Private Cable Tv

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Private Cable TV

The times are achanging...

How France, Germany and Sweden introduced private, cable and satellite TV - a comparison over the past 10 years.

1. INTRODUCTION

Why we have chosen this subject?

Before starting to write about TV in Sweden, Germany and France, we wanted to compare French,German and Swedish media. But on account of the wideness of this analysis, we decided to focus on the evolution of TV broadcasting during these last 10 years.

The technical revolution which has appeared in this area since 1980 is necessary to be understood to be able to follow and forecast what will happen in the future when multinational companies can take a look on pan-european broadcasting.
In this paper we try to make the point on this changes. Furthermore as we came from different countries and live now in an other one, we found it interesting to compare the three countries (France, Germany and Sweden) TV-broadcasting system. While we were searching for datas, we discovered the gap that exists in cable- covering between France and the two other countries. What are the main reasons of this delay? Are they political, financial or cultural? We will try to answer these questions in our paper. But we will first define the different technical terms that we are going to focus on. Then we will developp the birth of private channels, their regulations, laws and financing in the different countries.

2. BASICS

In our paper you will find the following technical terms:

¥ terrestrial broadcasting: this is the basic technology used to broadcast radio and TV. It«s the use of radio-frequencies that can be received by a simple antenna. The problem by using terrestrial broadcasting is, that you only have a few (up to max. 7) possible frequencies and that you need to have expensive transmitters every 100-150 kms to cover an area.

Programms which are broadcasted terrestrical are e.g.: Swedish TV 1, 2 and 4;
German ARD, ZDF, 3. Programme and some private channels in urban areas; French
TF 1, France 2 and France 3.

¥ cable TV: the reason why you have only a few frequencies by using terrestrial broadcasting is that terestrial broadcasting is influenced by physical phenomens
(bandwith) whereas broadcasting in a cable is shielded/protected from outside influences. So you can have more channels on the same bandwith-space. For example: a cable might carry 7 programmes catched with an antenna from terrestrical transmitters and additional 25 satellite channels (maximum 30-35 different channels in one cable). Instead of connecting to an antenna cable- households connect their TV-sets to the cable-network. ¥ satellite broadcasting: a satellite is a transmitter that is positioned on a course in space 40.

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