People, processes, management practices, and products should improve continually. Masaaki Imai gives an overview of the concept that is summarized in the following paragraphs: Kaizen value system The underlying value system of kaizen can be summarized as continual improvement of all things, at all levels, at all time, forever. All of the strategies for achieving this fall under kaizen. Executive managers, middle managers, supervisors, and line employees all play key roles in implementing kaizen. Role of executive management Executive managers are responsible for establishing kaizen as the overriding corporate strategy and communication this commitment to all levels of the organization, allocating the resources necessary for kaizen to work, establishing appropriate policies, ensuring full deployment of kaizen policies, and establishing systems, procedures, and structures that promote kaizen.
TQM is a management philosophy that seeks to integrate all organizational functions (marketing, finance, design, engineering, and production, customer service, etc.) to focus on meeting customer needs and organizational objectives. TQM views an organization as a collection of processes. It maintains that organizations must strive to continuously improve these processes by incorporating the knowledge and experiences of workers. The simple objective of TQM is “Do the right things, right the first time, every time.” TQM is infinitely variable and adaptable.
This enables the organization towards continuous process improvement, Training for employees and Team functioning. Critical success factor (CSF) is a term of management which
I. INTRODUCTION Before you can begin to understand what total quality management is, you must know what quality is. Quality is the ability to satisfy, or even exceed, the needs and expectations of the customers. Total Quality Management is a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction. The participation of all members of an organization in improving processes, products, services, and the culture they work in is the basis of TQM.
Globally implemented, this process supports a corporate culture in which all employees are empowered. This empowerment refers to employees’ personal responsibility for establishing and achieving the measurable objectives that describe the primary responsibilities of their position, the competencies or skill sets necessary to achieve these objectives, and the developmental activities that will improve skills and enhance levels of success within the company. III.
Total employee involvement Every member of an organization should be involved in the process of decision making in order to achieve continuous process improvement. It is crucial for every member to fully understand the organization’s vision, mission, and guiding principles as well as the quality policies, objectives, and critical processes. 3. Process-centered Process thinking is the fundamental part of TQM. A process is known as a series of activities that transform inputs into outputs.
TQM is a philosophy of management driven by the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through continuous improvement of all organizational processes, including employee participation, teamwork, and leadership. There are five key principles: -MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT 1) Plan (drive direct) 2) Do (deploy, support, and participate) 3) Check (review) 4) Act (recognize, communicate, revise) -EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT 1) Training 2) Suggestive Scheme 3) Measurement + Recognition 4) Excellence Teams -FACT BASED DECISION MAKING 1) Statistical process control 2) Team oriented problem solving (TOPS) -CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENT 1) Systematic measurement + focus 2) Excellence Teams 3) Cross-functional process management 4) Attain, maintain, + improve standards -CUSTOMER FOCUS 1) Supplier partnership 2) Service relationship with internal customers 3) Never compromise quality 4) Customer driven standards Implementation of TQM Total Quality Management emphasizes detecting potential problems before they occur. There are five major areas of TQM, which are: • Focus on quality and prevention of problems • Cooperation with suppliers and customers • Continuous improvement • Encouragement of proper climate and employee empowerment • Use of measurements to back decisions In the process of TQM customers are the ones who define a quality product. Not only should employees inspect products or services while performing duties, but companies must design quality products. During the design process there should be input from customers, marketing and those who assemble the final product.
If they don’t, the process should be implemented only when precise assessment and positive circumstances exist. TQM is the techniques a company uses to raise the service quality and production efficiency. It involves solid teamwork and is implemented horizontally within a business. Typically all internal employees and departments are included. The same applies for externals such as suppliers and current and potential customers.
One way of ensuring customer loyalty is to line organizational goals with customer needs. A principle of customer focus is the management of customer relations through assessing their satisfaction and acting on results systematically. Leadership’s goal is to communicate their requirements throughout the company. Top management should create clear objectives, purpose and unity. ISO 9001 establishes standards for continual improvement through the management of processes, effective analysis based decisions, incorporating involvement from all level of an organization, and understanding customer needs.
Performance appraisal is a method to evaluate the job performance of an employee. The overall objective of performance appraisals is to measure and develop the performance of employees and enhance their future potential and significance to the company. The process should comprise a minimum of four elements: initial goal setting, monitoring and data availability, continuous feedback, and annual assessment. The initial goal setting explains how all employees should have goals. The performance appraisal process is commonly used to make sure that every member of the organization sets and achieves effective goals.