Principles Of Grammar

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2.2.1 GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD (GTM) Grammar is a term in linguistics that is defined as a set of structural rules that governs the composition of words, phrases, and clauses in any given natural language. In short, every language has its own grammar. Grammar involves related sub-fields such as syntax, phonetics, morphology, and semantics. It is the structural foundation of your ability to express yourself in a way that other people can understand. Without this set of rules, a language or a dialect would be disorganized and creating meaning would be a difficult task. If you frequently read things posted on the Internet, you will find two kinds of people: those who have inherently bad grammar, and those who spend all their time correcting…show more content…
They are, to develop the students ' reading ability and; 2. To develop their general mental discipline. 2.2.2 BEHAVIORISM Behaviorism is a theory in Psychology which says that one can predict a person 's movements by classifying his behaviour.Ralph W.Fasol (2006,p.224) affirms that “one of the early explanations of language acquisition was rooted in behaviorism, a theory that held that language is essentially a habit, a behavior like any other, which is mastered through general learning principles”. Fasold describes three important principles that include: 1. Imitation; 2. Reinforcement; 3. punishment. For instance, a child might imitate a parents’s use of the word duck. The parent, upon hearing the child’s word , might provide positive reinforcement such as ‘yes, it is a duck’ and a smile, or, alternatively, might look away if the child’s utterance is not comprehended. In this way, the child’s more target-like utterance are rewarded ( and thus tend to be repeated) while the non- target-like utterances are ‘punished’. He concludes that, ‘ behaviorism tend to focus on observable behaviors rather than internal or innate process.Accordingly they assume that children are essentially’interested’bystanders, bringing no special abilities or innate machanisms to bear on the language process.While this approach has a certain commosense appeal, behaviorism is no longer the dominant research paradigm in the study of child…show more content…
Cognitive-behaviorism is an Approach to teaching lended theory that incorporates both cognitive theory and behaviorism. According to cognitive-behaviorism, our responses are based on a complex interaction between thoughts and behaviors. Modern cognitive-behaviorism also incorporates elements of feeling-based learning theories, such as rational-emotive theory. According to these principles, we are complex human beings whose responses are based on ongoing interactions between our thoughts, feelings and
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