Aaker and Keller 1990; Keller and Aaker 1992; Sunde and Brodie 1993; Dacin and Smith 1994; Bottomley and Doyle 1996). Reputation of a brand in these studies is considered as the outcome of product quality, the firm’s marketing activities and acceptance in the market place, i.e. more akin to the views of Fombrun and van Riel (1997). 9 Brands with higher perceived reputation should provide consumers with greater risk relief and so encourage more positive evaluations than brands of lower reputation. This notion should be true for FMCG, durable goods, and particularly for services.
However, the consumer and investor in us seek out best deals and the highest returns (Reich, 168). CSR is a strategic attempt for a company to increase brand identification and to provide consumers with another reason to choose their products. Certain consumers, who we believe to be the minority, may be attracted to the philanthropic goals of corporations, such as egoists or those prone to dispositional empathy. However, we believe that prosocial behavior does not undermine bargain-hunting. Competitive pricing, convenience, and quality will ultimately produce more allure to consumers than CSR initiatives.
According to Kotler and Keller (2009) brand signifies a certain level of quality. The higher perceived product quality, then the greater the image of its brand (Ming, Ismail, and Rasiah, 2011). When there was a good perception of quality, a positive brand image would be created as there is strong, favorable, and unique associations linked to the brand due to greater brand attributes, benefits, and attitudes as perceived by consumers. Considering the relationship between perceived quality and brand image, several studies indicate a positive impact of perceived quality on brand image (Ming et al., 2011; Hanaysha et al., 2014; Alhaddad, 2015). Therefore, this study hypothesized
REVIEW OF LITERARURE According to Hsieh, Pan, and Setiono (2004), "a successful brand image enables consumers to identify the needs that the brand satisfies and to differentiate the brand from its competitors, and consequently increases the likelihood that consumers will purchase the brand". A company or its product services, which constantly holds a favorable image by the public, would definitely gain a better position in the market, sustainable competitive advantage, and increase market share or performance (Park, Jaworski, & MacInnis, 1986). In addition, several empirical findings have confirmed that a favorable image (i.e. brand, store/retail) will lead to loyalty (e.g. Koo, 2003; Kandampully & Suhartanto, 2000; Nguyen & LeBlanc, 1998),
Perceived quality will empower a solid brand to augment further and will get a more noteworthy achievement plausibility than a powerless brand. Perceived quality can exhibit better position in the market and make for the customer motivation to purchase while additional cost would not be considered as negative component. As indicated by M. Delong et al. (2004), perceived quality can be considered a
Successful retail branding can provide a form of "insulation" against price competition and states: "Where the store brand name is itself a brand name based on a quality appeal, it will be easier to position the own brand as a premium product under the same name" (Schmidt, R., & Pioch, E., 2005). Further as consumers, we tend to think about brands as symbols like the Nike swoosh or McDonald’s golden arches; the working definition of a brand is broader. A brand is usually defined as a name, logo, symbol, words, or combination of these, intended to distinguish a particular company’s offerings from those of competitors. In this sense, the modern use of the word “brand” harkens back to its older meaning which is a distinguishing mark or burn to identify wine, livestock or other commodities by their owner (Koehn, N., 2013). The value of branding in healthcare is very important because the changes happening in health care today will put a new premium on strong and trusted brands.
When businesses develop a new products or a new market, they should promote their brand awareness in order to receive the best result because brand awareness is positively related to brand loyalty (Aaker & Keller, 1990; Peng, 2006; Wu, 2002; Chou, 2005). Chang and Wildt (1994) submit that value can facilitate loyalty. Parasuraman and Grewal (2000) propose that the more positive customer transaction perceptions are, the stronger customer loyalty is. Sirdeshmukh, Sigh and Sabol (2002) also deem that value will bring a positive influence toward customers. Wu (2007) identifies that the perception of consumers will increase or reduce brand loyalty.
Harley-Davidson 1. Customer Perceived Value (CPV) is essentially a consumer's evaluation of total benefits less total costs of a product or service compared against a perceived alternative (Kotler & Keller, 2012). There are a few ways for a company to take to improve CPV on a specific product. First, it may focus on expanding total customer's benefit by improving its product’s image. It may also invest into functional characteristics of the product as well as provide a better and more personalized service.
On the other hand, perceived ease of use is more salient in determining perceived usefulness for females than males (Ong and Lai’s, 2006). Thus, the corresponding hypothesis was: H3a. The effect of perceived ease of use on utilitarian of shopping online will be stronger for women than men. H3b. The effect of perceived ease of use on attitude toward shopping online will be stronger for women than men.
This phenomenon is often likened to the experience curve paradigm that when an organisation enjoys lower costs, improved efficiency from conducting business operations overtime. The basic tenet of this postulation is that the more an organisation performs a task often; it tends to develop new ways in performing those tasks better which results in lower operating cost (Cipher 2006). What that suggests is that the experience curve effect requires that market share is increased to be able to drive down costs in the long run and at the same time a company with a dominant market share will inevitably have a cost advantage over competitor companies because they have the greater share of the market.