Prevention Of Child Abuse And Neglect

1019 Words5 Pages
Child abuse and neglect is a major public health issue in the United States with about three million cases reported in the States every year. This review will shed light on the risk factors, consequences and current primary and secondary preventive strategies. Primary preventive strategies include educational programs via public awareness programs, public service announcements, parent education groups, child educational programs, family support and strengthening programs, while home visiting programs are majorly secondary prevention though with an element of primary preventive strategy. These strategies are focused on preventing child abuse and neglect from occurring in the first instance, as well as approaches to reduce consequences by focusing on the individuals, family and community. Keywords: child abuse and neglect, preventive strategies Prevention of child abuse and neglect Child abuse and neglect can be defined as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by parents or caregiver which results in harm, either threat of harm or potential for harm on a child less than 18 years of age (Leeb, Paulozzi, Melanson, Simon, & Arias, 2008) . These acts of commission are deliberate and intentional although harm might not be the intended consequences while the acts of omission also known as neglect is failure to provide for the child basic needs or failure to protect them from harm or potential harm, inadequate supervision, or exposure to violent environment (Leeb et al., 2008) According to the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, types of abuse and neglect include: physical abuse which is non-accidental physical injury on a child that is inflicted by a parent ... ... middle of paper ... ...arental alcohol or drug use, domestic violence, child behavior problems and prior child abuse or neglect are associated with significantly greater risks of proven physical abuse reports (Dakil et al., 2012; MacMillan, Tanaka, Duku, Vaillancourt, & Boyle, 2013) Community-based factors Conditions in the neighbourhood can increase the risk of child abuse. These can include low socioeconomic status such as poverty and unemployment(Eckenrode, Smith, McCarthy, & Dineen, 2014; Slack, 2004), or cultural norms in the environment that promotes violence (Lansford et al., 2015). A study that compared child abuse reports, income inequalities across US counties and children living in poverty by using respective data system from 2005 to 2009 found out that greater income inequality was significantly associated with greater rates of maltreatment in children (Eckenrode et al., 2014).
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