Pressure Ulcer Case Study

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Introduction A pressure ulcer is an area of skin with unrelieved pressure resulting in ischemia, cell death, and necrotic tissue. The constant external pressure or rubbing that exceeds the arterial capillary pressure (32mmHg) and impairs local normal blood flow to tissue for an extended period of time, results in pressure ulcer (Smeltzer et. Al., 2013). According to National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2014, pressure ulcers are a major burden to the society, as it approaches $11billion annually, with a cost range from $500 to $70,000 per individual pressure ulcer. It is a significant healthcare problem despite considerable investment in education, training, and prevention equipment. This paper includes two different studies to link cause-effect…show more content…
With noticeable increase in chronic diseases, trauma, and increasing number of aging population, nurses are required to be in the position of providing pressure ulcer care and prevention. Immobility, advanced age, incontinence, prolonged pressure or friction, inadequate nutrition, dehydration, anemia, hypoxemia, multiple comorbidities, sensory deficiency, thin skin, prominent bony prominences, circulatory abnormalities, pain, and smoking are important risk factors. The barriers in the implementation of preventive measures are staff shortage, shortage of pressure relieving devices (e.g., foam or air mattresses), excessive workload, and uncooperative patients. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has classified the pressure ulcers as a preventable Hospital Acquired Conditions and stopped reimbursing for such hospital acquired conditions. In the United States, the cost of an individual patient care per pressure ulcer includes skin cleanser, moisturizer, dressings, wound debridgement, antibiotics, analgesics, turning sheet and support surfaces, nursing time for risk assessment, monitoring, and repositioning. It is the second most common claim after wrongful death and greater than falls or emotional distress. No matter what causes the pressure ulcers, the presence or absence of pressure ulcers is generally regarded as a performance measure of quality nursing care and overall patient health. Pressure ulcers can be avoided by applying simple interventions like factor assessment scales and regular turning of the patient. Proper hydration, a balanced diet, activity, wound care, and keeping patient’s skin and body dry are treatment, as well as, preventive measures of this problem. A thorough physical assessment, risk assessment (using a risk assessment tool like Barden scale), repositioning, patient and caretaker education, effective communication, and
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