Symptoms and Diagnosis of Plasmodium Malaria is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite and transported by the Anopheles mosquito. Fever is the most common symptom of malaria. Other symptoms include arthralgia and vomiting. The most common diagnosis process for this disease is looking at the patient’s blood under a microscope. If microscopy is not available, antigen detection tests can be used.
Causative Agent, Mode of Transmission and Risk Factors P. falciparum is a protozoan parasite that once it has infected its human host causes the disease known as Malaria (Lehne, 2013, p.1238). This particular species of the genus Plasmodium is believed to stem from over one hundred thousand years ago (Carucci, 2004). These protozoan parasites are transferred to the human host by way of a vector in the form of a female Anopheles where the parasite resides in the saliva and is released when the insect feeds on a humans blood (Miller et al., 2013). The mosquito acquires this parasite by the same means of feeding on an infected host where the protozoa is ingested, grows and multiples in the stomach and upon maturation it shifts to the salivary glands to be spread to the next human host (Kyes, Horrocks, & Newbold, 2001). There are many risk factors for contracting the parasite including living in or traveling to countries where malaria is endemic, not taking the proper precautions such as insect repellent and areas with large amounts of standing water which are sites of mosquito breeding (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010).
After entering the mosquito midgut by ingestion in a blood meal from an infected vertebrate, the parasite develops into an ookinete, travels to the midgut epithelium, and then forms many sporozoites. These sporozoites are the form of the parasite that travel throughout the hemocoel and eventually enter the salivary glands where they can be transmitted to another host through a blood meal (N. Becker et al., 2010). This pathway is just one example of how a certain parasite interacts with mosquitoes, and each pathogen can interact with and be dealt with differently by the mosquito
The Dengue virus is only spread by mosquitoes; it is not spread directly from person to person. The Aedes aegypti is a day-biting mosquito that prefers to feed on humans. WHO GETS DENGUE FEVER? Everyone is susceptible to the disease if exposed to infected mosquitoes. Dengue fever is a current epidemic in more than 100 subtropical countries where the mosquito population is high.
Alternatively, P. Knowlesi can be lethal. When an infected mosquito bites a person, they get malaria. Other mosquitoes that bite that person can spread the disease, so you can get malaria directly from a parasite-infected mosquito or a mosquito that bit someone who already... ... middle of paper ... ...quine (Aralen), mefloquine (Larium), primaquine, pyrimethamine (Daraprim), and quinine. Malaria: Conclusion This dangerous disease should be recognized as a threat and menace, so the oblivious should become aware of all the deaths caused in a year by malaria. To sum it all up, malaria is caused by parasite-infected mosquitoes, signs of malaria are basically changes in temperature from colds to fevers, it is diagnosed by extinguishable malaria parasites in the blood and treatment is determined by the severity of the disease, the outcome is usually complete recovery and in some cases, death is the only way out, and preventing malaria is all about preventing mosquitoes Again, malaria is a disastrous disease, one you don’t want to get; one that no one wants to get.
Malaria is a disease characterized by fever and flu like illness that according to the CDC “if not treated can lead to jaundice, kidney failure, seizures, mental confusion, coma, and death” (CDC p.2. There are four types of malaria: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae with the most common type being plasmodium falciparum. (CDC p.1) ).. This disease can only be transmitted by an interaction of blood as the parasite lives in the red blood cells of the infected host individual. This can be due to blood transfusions, sharing of syringes or by its common vector, the Anopheles mosquito.Because of its vector being a mosquito malaria is common in areas with warm temperatures and causes the most damage in poor developing nations.
The most fatal version of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Malaria infected Cell Disease-transmitting mosquitoes are exposed to a wide range of deadly pathogens, and yet, they are able to resist infection. These invertebrates produce pattern recognition receptors, PRRs, which discern the specific molecular pattern associated with a pathogen. Upon recognition, the PRRs activate the insects immune system, which then isolates the pathogens by confining it within another molecule. The Anopheles gambiae mosquito generates approximately 150 PRR genes, each one with the ability to distinguish the molecular pattern for a particular pathogen.
The following shall first describe the transmition of the disease and then the colonization that takes place. During a blood meal on a human a female mosquito must inject her saliva containing an anticoagulant agent to ensure and even flow of blood into the mouth (1). With the saliva comes malarial sporozoites which, within minutes of direct contact with the blood take an immediate route with the circulation of blood to the liver of the human (2). Research has indicated that once the sporozoites arrive in the livers sinusoidal cavities they stop their movement by using two major surface proteins, the circumsporozoite and the thormbospondin-related adhesive protein (3). Research Page 3 of 6 conducted by Pradel et al.
Malaria is spread when the mosquito picks up the parasites from the blood of an infected human when it feeds. The mosquito will first recieve the malaria parasite from feeding on the blood of a person who may not neccessarily show symptoms of the disease, but has the parasites in their bloodstream. When the mosquito feeds again, these parasites will be passed on to another human being. Symptoms of malaria include fever, shivering, pain in the joints, headache, repeated vomiting, generalized convulsions, and coma. If not treated, the disease, especially that caused by protozoa falciparum, will progress to severe malaria.
A global campaign is underway to stop the spread and control the vector, which is responsible for the spread of Malaria. Along with the education and attempts to control the vector that spread the disease, Science Daily has published the discovery of a protein that could help prevent deaths due to Malaria. Even though how malaria is treated, National and global perspective about Malaria because global efforts to control the disease and how malaria spreads and the environments that fosters the vector. New advances in research are allowing for a better understanding of the body function and the disease behavior in the body. Transmission and symptoms of Malaria Malaria is a vector-borne disease that is spread by the bite of a mosquito.