Preparation of Mosquito Repellent Fabrics

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Preparation of Mosquito Repellent Fabrics Abstract: A mosquito repellent substrate includes a fabric which is impregnated with a repellent carrier composition. The carrier composition includes a mosquito repellent (e.g. permethrin, prallethrin etc.), binder, emulsifier and cross linker. The carrier composition is applied as a finish or printed onto the fabric. 1. Introduction 1.1 About Mosquitoes Mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever and yellow fever, have plagued civilization for thousands of years. There are many kind of mosquitoes, each of which has a different habitat, behavior and preferred source of blood. About ten of these species are so numerous, and such vicious biters of man and animals, that an organized mosquito control is necessary because mosquitoes are not a nuisance as biting insects, but are also involved periodically in transmitting disease to humans and animals. Only female mosquitoes bite. When adult mosquitoes emerge from the aquatic stages, they mate, and the female seeks a blood meal to obtain the proteins for the development of her eggs. After a blood meal is digested and the eggs are laid, the female mosquito depending on her stamina and the weather may repeat this process many times without mating again. They usually feed every 3 to 4 days; in a single feeding, a female mosquito typically consumes more than its own weight in blood. Male mosquitoes feed primarily on flower nectar. He lives for only a short time after mating. Certain species of mosquitoes prefer to feed at twilight or nighttime; others bite mostly during the day. Mosquitoes home in on people because they are giving off carbon dioxide, lactic acid, body odor and also heat. Mosquitoes use carbon dioxide and lactic acid like sign posts to our body - following them until they find our skin and they bite us. 1.2 About Mosquito Repellents 1.2.1 Permethrin Permethrin is a human-made synthetic pyrethroid. It does not repel insects but works as a contact insecticide, causing nervous system toxicity that leads to the death or "knockdown" of the insect. The chemical is effective against mosquitoes, flies, ticks, and chiggers. Permethrin has low toxicity in mammals, is poorly absorbed by the skin, and is rapidly inactivated by ester hydrolysis. Density: 1.19 g/cm³ Chemical Formula: C21H20Cl2O3 Boiling Point: 200°C 1.2.2 Prallethrin Prallethrin is also a pyrethroid. It works on the same principle as permethrin. It has been found to be more effective on Indian mosquitoes than permethrin. 1.2.3 DEET DEET is N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide. It works by evaporation, creating a shield a few inches above the area of application.

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