Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice

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Introduction The overwhelming overlapping map of poverty and conservation area of the world (Sunderlin et al. 2007) led the scientist in this arena to think about these two issues jointly. In addition right-based thinking of conservation is also a crucial factor behind the amalgamation of these two development process (Adams and Hutton 2007). Naturally protected areas initiated or situated in the rural or peri-urban areas where poverty is already present to the highest degree (Walpole and Wilder 2008). In other way in can be said that acute poverty near the conservation site or protected area make it more vulnerable or threatened due to resource extraction for livelihood purpose (Adams et al. 2004). In this regard Walpole and Wilder (2008) states, “conservation and poverty reduction are different societal goals that in particular contexts may come together in mutually supportive or conflicting ways”. Whereas Fisher et al. (2005) states “in many ways linking conservation with poverty reduction is more of an art than a science”. Against this background world leaders tried to address this link in several international treaties. The Strategic Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted in 2002 sets the target “to achieve by 2010 a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on earth”. In addition, Goal 1 target 1A of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) aims to “halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day” while target 7B, to “reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss” was specifically ... ... middle of paper ... ..., D. and Vedeld, P. (2012). False Promise or False Premise? Using Tourism Revenue Sharing to Promote Conservation and Poverty Reduction in Uganda. Conservation and Society, 10(1), pp.15–28. Vedeld, P. et al. (2012). Protected Areas, Poverty and Conflicts: A Livelihood Case Study of Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Forest Policy and Economics, 21, pp.20–31. Walpole, M. and Wilder, L. (2008). Disentangling the Links Between Conservation and Poverty Reduction in Practice. ORYX, 42(4), pp.539–547. WRI. (2005). The Wealth of the Poor: Managing Ecosystems to Fight Poverty. Washington, D.C.: World Resource Institute. Wunder, S. (2001). Poverty Alleviation and Tropical Forests: What Scope for Synergies? World Development, 29(11), pp.1817–1833. WWF. (2012). Living Planet Report 2012: Biodiversity, Biocapacity and Better Choices. Gland, Switzerland: World Wide Fund for Nature.

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