Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

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Topic: The Role Equine Assisted Therapy in the healing process of individuals diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
Several people are impacted by Post Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD) every year. There are various types of therapies that are used to aid in the recovery of PTSD. An emerging field of Therapy is Animal Assisted Therapy or Learning (EAT/L). This literature review is going to look at the role of a particular type of Animal Assisted Therapy which involves horses as therapeutic aids. Equine assisted therapy has various conceptual models and factors that can have great positive impacts on Individuals diagnosed with PTSD.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that some people develop after seeing or living through an event that caused or threatened serious harm or death (Health, N.D.).
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder occurs when a memory of a traumatic event is perceived to presents a viable current threat to the individual (Ehlers & Clark, 1999).
There are various key aspects that lead to the perception of a current threat in PTSD.
The first being the individual differences in the appraisal of the trauma. The second aspect or process leading to PTSD is the individual differences in the nature of the memory of the event and its links to other memories (Ehlers & Clark, 1999).
The symptoms of PTSD may include flashbacks or bad dreams, emotional numbness, intense guilt or worry, angry outbursts, feeling “on edge,” or avoiding thoughts and situations that remind the individual of the trauma. In PTSD, these symptoms should last at least one month (Health, N.D.). Individuals with persistent PTSD are unable to see the trauma as a time-bound event without any further negative implications. The e...

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Ehlers, A., & Clark, D. M. (1999). A Cognitive Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
Health, U. D. (N.D.). NIMH Fact Sheet.
Holloway, G. M., Candy, C., Rothbaum, B. O., Difede, J., Rizzo, A. A., & Gahm, G. A. (2011). Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Active Duty Soldiers in a Military Mental Health Clinic.
Ketola, J. R. (2012). Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: Can it Improve Self-Regulation and Social Skills in Children Diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder?
Kirby, M. (2010). Gestalt Equine Psychotherapy.
Klontz, B. T., Bivens, A., Leinart, D., & Klontz, T. (2007). The Effectiveness of Equine-Assisted Experiential Therapy: Results of an Open Clinical Trial.
Lentini, J. A., & Knox, M. (2009). A Qualitative and Quantitative Review of Equine Facilitated Psychotherapy (EFP) with Childeren and Adolicents .
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