Hungary is in Central Europe, Northwest of Romania. It was “a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until its collapse during World War I” (Factbook). After World War II, the country fell to Stalin’s regime. The announcement of Hungary’s removal in the Warsaw Pact caused a vast riot. The Hungarian Revolution was a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-forced policies.
After the Second World War, the Soviet Union spread their political ideology among the countries of East Central Europe. Instantly, Josef Stalin spread Stalinization across each of the countries to assert Soviet control. He created totalitarian governments with limited freedoms for its citizens. Following the death of Stalin, the new leader of the Soviet Union, Nika Khrushchev, began changing the repressive policies of Stalin, opening the doors to the countries of East Central Europe to challenge the rule of the Soviets. Using the Soviet Thaw as an opportunity to reform the system of government, many countries including Hungary and Czechoslovakia had uprisings against Soviet Rule.
The Consequences of the Revolt in Hungary Background The Hungarian uprising took place in October to November 1956. The Hungarians wanted free elections, an end to the collectivisation of farms, the withdrawal of Soviet troops and the AVO (Hungarian Secret Police) to stop its persecution of anti-communists. Also the last demand that they made, which Khrushchev could not agree to, was the removal of Hungary from the Warsaw pact. When these demands were refused Khrushchev also sent in the Red Army to flush out the resistance fighters, who had already driven out a previous division. The consequences for the USSR The USSR faced many consequences as a result of the harsh treatment that they had dealt the Hungarians during the rebellion.
Following the death of Josef Stalin in 1953, the harsh policies he implemented in not only the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, but also its many satellite nations began to break down. There was a movement to distance all of the socialist nations from Stalin?s sadistic rule. In the Peoples? Republic of Hungary, there was much disillusionment with this Stalinist absolutism (Felkay 50). This disillusionment with the Soviet ideal of socialism lead the people of the fledgeling socialist state of Hungary to rise up in revolt, but ill-preparedness and the strength of the Soviet Red Army put down the insurrection within several days.
He purged the communist party of Hungary of “Titotists” and forced indoctrination of Stalinism in the educational intuitions throughout Hungary. Hungary was one of the most repressed country sin East Central Europe until 1953 with the death of Josef Stalin. When Josef Stalin died and leadership of the Soviet Union changed to Nika Khrushchev, the period of the soviet thaw had a profound effect on the countries of East Central Europe. Nagy was made Prime Min... ... middle of paper ... ... turn an ask for allies for assistance and to give the impression that the entire Warsaw Pact would not tolerate the reforms by Dubcek. The Czech’s did not have the military power to stand up against the countries of the Warsaw Pact and surrendered the entire reforms of the Dubcek Era.
Some 4,000 Hungarians were killed. 9. Khrushchev put in Russian supporter, Janos Kadar, as prime minister. Causes of the Hungarian Revolution 1. Khrushchev's policy of 'de-Stalinisation' caused problems in many Eastern European Communist countries, where people hated the hard-line Stalinist regimes that Russia had put in place.
The Germans slaughtered twenty million Russians, including civilians, in an attempt to annihilate what Adolf Hitler referred to as sub-humans. In 1945, the Germans surrendered, and this put the Soviet Union in a strong position in the continent. On the other hand, it was not only war that helped the communists to take power in East-Central Europe after 1944. Stalin and the communist parties took advantage of political, economic, and social factors to spread their influence across. Stalin believed that he must impose his own social system in each territory he would occupy, and this required a full-scale Soviet military presence throughout East-Central Europe.
This caused the United States and Britain to ignore Stalin’s wish of taking a hard line with Germany in settlement talks. The Soviets formed the Socialist Unity party in East Berlin and effectively gained control of East Germany. Though this had a lot to do with the fact that the European people were increasingly tired and lacked the energy to fight a growing Socialist party line, another major factor was that there were enough citizens in this area and in “other Soviet-dominated countries who believed communism was a better social system and that it could breed a new kind of humanity” (Stranges, 193). The apparent spread of communism caused many to question the government’s policy of non-intervention in foreign affairs. A counselor in the United States Embassy in Moscow, George Kennan, introduced the policy of containment which said that America needed to stop the spread of communism and that it would eventually die out so long as it did not broaden.
In both countries current leaders were forced to resign and received no support from the USSR. In Hungary this event was repeated as the leader proceeding Rakosi was no better and public demonstrations caused a change in government yet again. Similarly both new leaders proved capable desiring reforms in the country. In Hungary however, reforms were demanded on a different level, as the Hungarians had no desire in keeping Communism and staying in the Warsaw Pact. Nagy’s government wanted free elections, impartial courts and farmland restored to private ownership.
The underestimation of resistance from non-Russian ethnic groups (which was more than 50% of total population), and failure of the communism system to meet economic needs of the people were some of the reasons which to led to the decline of the USSR economy and arms competition with United States. Despite the Government’s effort to instill the ideology of communism to its people, it never took firm roots and Government ended up losing the grip of the people. With the political and economic stagnations caused by the communism, there was no choice but to change the way of doing things leading to dissolution of USSR in December 1991. The fifteen newly formed countries had overwhelming tasks of developing the economy, reorganizing the political systems, and settling the territorial disputes created earlier. There has been wars in the boundaries of the former