Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, also known as PTSD, often occurs when anxiety results from experiencing an uncontrollable and unpredictable danger or a natural disaster. Also referred to as acute stress disorder, it consists of symptoms that are common in people who have suffered traumatic experiences such as war, rape, other assaults and natural disasters such as hurricanes, fire or earthquake. The reaction might occur immediately or it might be delayed for months. In contrast acute stress disorder typically occurs after the traumatic event and subsides within several months. In both disorders, typical symptoms include reliving the trauma in recurrent, intrusive thoughts or dreams; “psychic numbing,” a sense of detachment from others and an inability to feel happy or loving; and increased physiological arousal, reflected in difficulty concentrating, insomnia and irritability. As mentioned earlier, PTSD is common in war veterans and often results in an inner conflict of sorts that can lead to split personality and various other disorders that can impair a person for life. Thus the following essay will attempt to discuss the ways in which PTSD can be prevented in war veterans. PTSD results in a distortion of one’s perceptions while undergoing a traumatic event and often the defense mechanisms are activated in a bid to prevent feelings of extreme anxiety and pain that can result in great stress. Thus the person is able to cope with the situation by separating the trauma, which affects a person later on. A chemical known as glutamate is released during this period within the body i.e. in conditions of extreme stress the levels of this chemical rise and but then go back to normal whereas in PTSD these levels remain elevated. PTSD ca...
Mental illnesses have been a stigma in society for great amount of time. Society tends to view individuals who possess these illnesses as someone who is insane. For this reason, many individuals do not seek treatment or deny their condition. If society learned more about certain disorders and the difficulty it is to live with them, perhaps the stigma will go away, or at least be reduced. The individual may then seek treatment with ease, as their mentality will shift from a completely negative perception of themselves to an awareness that demonstrates they are getting better. Having a vast interest in both clinical psychology, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been a topic of interest of mine. This paper will explain the criteria of diagnosing the disorder, risk factors, treatment options, financial hardships, suicide, and the various resources available to individuals with this disorder. Though we tend to view individuals with a mental illness only in regards to their mental health, there is a wide range of factors that affect the individual’s overall wellness, as the mind and the body are greatly dependent on one another.
There have been several findings of diary entries that describe the symptoms of PTSD ranging from Egyptian and Greek soldiers to Henry IV. Having written proof of this disorder in soldiers who fought so long ago shows the “Nostalgia” was the first term used to label the symptoms of PTSD and was used by the Swiss military physicians in 1678. The term was used to label symptoms like disturbed sleep or insomnia, loss of appetite, anxiety, cardiac palpitations, and fever. Even at this point in time, these issues were being seen primarily in soldiers who have gone to war and returned home. Several countries who were involved in war, like France and Spain, report having their soldiers return with these symptoms.
From “exhaustion” during the Napoleonic war to “shell shock” during World War I, and “combat fatigue” during World War II (PTSD:A cultural 30). However, the name Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has only been formally introduced into the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-III) in 1980 (Andreasen 67). Some psychologists argue that the inclusion of PTSD in the DSM-III legitimated this psychological disorder although many argue that it was merely a relabeling of what had already been described as “shell shock,” “combat trauma” or “combat fatigue” ( 67). Nevertheless, the question is, has PTSD always existed? Was the symptoms Mr. Culpepper, a veteran of World War II, exhibited a
References throughout historical literature describe symptoms of this disorder (Creamer, Wade, Fletcher, & Forbes, 2011). Although not formally named, PTSD was heavily studied during World War I by doctors wh...
Posttraumatic stress disorder is a psychological disorder that occurs after a person has been through a traumatic event, such as combat warfare. In this essay, I would like to compare Vietnam soldiers to soldiers in the Trojan War, and contrast the similarities and differences between the two, also analyze how soldiers’ lives have been affected similarly throughout two completely different wars. I would also like to show the irony of war, and how war doesn’t only dehumanize soldiers, but it also inspires valuable human qualities. In the movie Achilles in Vietnam, Dr. Shay does a great job by showing us how the psychological devastation of Vietnam veterans compares to the one Achilles experienced after losing his beloved comrade, Patroclus.
Early descriptive accounts of stress-related disorders are often linked to the history of warfare. In a book by “Stephen Crane’s” a youth’s reaction to the stress of a battle during the Civil War provides an early example. The youth who was ”Henry Fleming,” the main character in The Red Badge of Courage, describes a range of anxiety symptoms that he experiences during combat. The horrors of trench warfare during World War I, and their resultant psychological consequences, led to formulation of the concept of “shell shock,” initially thought to be a consequence of exposure to intense artillery. Subsequently clinicians realized that the symptoms were due to the stress of the combat experience. Interest in shellshock waned as memories of World War I receded, but it was reawakened by the advent of World War II. As had happened previously, soldiers who were chronically exposed to combat experienced a syndrome characterized anxiety, intense autonomic arousal, reliving, and sensitivity to stimuli that are reminiscent of the original trauma. This syndrome was given a variety of different names: traumatic war neurosis, combat fatigue, battle stress, and gross stress reaction. When the war drew to its end, another type of stress was discovered: the experience of death camp survivors (Andreasen,
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects 7.7 million American adults and can also occur during childhood. PTSD is an anxiety disorder that stems from a recent emotional threat such as a natural, disaster, war, and car accidents. PTSD usually occurs from an injury or coming close death. A person who has experienced a past traumatic event has a heightened chance of being diagnosed with PTSD after a current trauma. PTSD can also be determined by looking at one’s genes, different emotions, and current or past family setting. Normally, when a person without PTSD goes through a traumatic event the body releases stress hormones, which in time returns back to normal; However, a person with PTSD releases stress hormones that do not return back to normal and soon begin to release them more frequently (“Post-Traumatic Stress” 1). PTSD usually begins within the first three months. One usually begins to notice between the period of two days and four weeks.
“Shell shock” was a well known neuropsychiatric disorder present in the war, which at first was assumed to be the result of the vicitim’s close proximity to the explosion of shells (6). However, when the labelling of “shell shock” was replaced with “combat fatigue” the severity of previous presentations were minimised, and the suggestiveness of the title ‘fatigue’ meant that the soldiers believed that they would be able to return to combat after rest (7).To illustrate the salient points in the fragility of evidence in the biological approach to mental health further, Dr. Insel, Former Director of NIMH asserts that the DSM’s ‘the english dictionary of mental disorders’ strength is in its reliability that all clinicians diagnose using the same rubric. However its main, and probably most fundamental weakness is its lack of validity, as the symptom based diagnoses focus on the nature of the evidence and not the subjective reality of each individual
Anyone can develop anxiety from experience and then from this they illness they form is post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)—once called shell shock. It affects hundreds of thousands of people who have survived earthquakes, airplane crashes, terrorist bombings, inner-city violence, domestic abuse, rape, war, genocide, and other disasters, both natural and human made. PTSD has been called shell shock or battle fatigue syndrome. It has often been misunderstood or misdiagnosed, even though the disorder has very specific symptoms. Most people who end up forming this disorder have it for the rest of their lives unless medicated or overcome their anxiety, they will never get rid of it.