Discipline is important in maintaining a positive classroom environment and influencing a child’s development. During my field experience at S.H. Elementary, I have observed Mrs. Branson using various techniques to reinforce positive behavior in her 3rd grade classroom. Mrs. Branson’s teachers 3rd grade in a charter school located in the south suburbs of Minneapolis. Her class consist of 23 diverse student learners from various racial, ethical, cultural, and economic backgrounds. Each student acquires individual wants and needs, and exhibits a range of behaviors. Mrs. Branson practices operant conditioning techniques to acquire the good behavior she wants and needs from her students. Operant conditioning can be attributed with behaviorist Edward Thorndike and his Law of Effect, which states that behaviors associated with good consequences are more likely to occur again in the future, while behaviors associate with bad consequences are less likely to occur (EdPsych Modules, p. 161). Behaviorist B.F. Skinner expanded on these ideas to form a three phase model of operant conditioning known as The ABC’s …show more content…
Branson also uses various verbal prompts to increase student performance and correct behavioral responses. These prompts are also displayed on posters in the classroom identify and remind students of appropriate classroom behavior. When the students are changing actives or leave the room, Mrs. Branson holds up one finger and says “one” aloud to the class. “One” represents the the acronym SLANT, which is a strategy that enhances learning and student performance by creating a behavior incorporating the conscious use of positive body language (Professional Learning Board). SLANT prompts students to sit up, listen, ask and answer questions, nod your head, track the speaker. When Mrs. Branson says “two” students stand up and push in their chair and get ready for “three” which is the transition to the next activity and students systematically line up in a single
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B.F Skinner developed operant conditioning. It’s the theory that one’s behavior is influenced by the actions that follow afterward. If the actions that follow afterward are consequences, then the behavior according to the theory will fade away. If the actions afterward is a positive action like a reward the behavior will continue on.
Operant conditioning is a kind of conditioning, which examines how often a behavior will or occur depending on the effects of the behavior (King, 2016, pg. ). The words positive and negative are used to apply more significance to the words reinforcement or punishment. Positive is adding to the stimulus, while negative is removing from the stimulus (King, 2016). For instance, with positive reinforcement, there is the addition of a factor to increase the number of times that the behavior occurs (King, 2016). An example of positive reinforcement is when a child is given an allowance for completing their household chores. The positive reinforcement is the allowance which helps to increase the behavior of doing chores at home. In contrast with negative
Operant conditioning started with B.F. Skinner. However, Skinner’s operant conditioning came from Edward Thorndike’s Law of Effect Theory, which states that “behavior is determined by the consequences associated with the good or bad behavior.” Skinner associated the term reinforcement with Operant Conditioning because he believed that reinforcement would strengthen a behavior. (McLeod, 2007) Skinner came up with this theory through his various experiments with animals.
Skinner believed that all behavior is determined and operant behavior is the idea that operant behavior is the idea that we expect something because we preformed a certain behavior. Skinner also believed that operant conditioning’s purpose was to bring a change positive or or negative to any behavior.
Operant conditioning is a type of learning where a person is taught that specific actions are related to specific consequences. The main goal of using this type of conditioning is to encourage the individual to change his or her behavior in some way. Specifically, the individual can be encouraged to perform a desired behavior more often through use of positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement, and he or she can also be encouraged to perform an undesired behavior less often through use of positive punishment and negative punishment. Positive reinforcement is basically a type of operant conditioning in which an addition or reward is given to the individual when he or she has displayed the desired behavior, and as a result, the behavior
Operant conditioning is a system of learning that transpires through punishment and rewards for behaviors (Kalat, 2011). Through this, a connection linking a behavior and a consequence is made. For instance a kid could be told that she will not get recess privileges if she talks in class. This possibility of being punished leads to decrease in disruptive behaviors from her. The major components of operant condition are punishment and reinforcement (Kalat, 2011).
Though most people associate this theory with B.F Skinner, the roots go back to John Watson, an American psychologist. After speaking out on his apposing views of Freud’s theory of psychology, he pioneered a new school of thought- behaviorism. Watson explained it to be the science of observable behavior which he believed was the only form of behavior that could be of real value for the study of humans. His sole reason for apposing Freud’s theory of the unconscious mind was because it was not observable and was based on the psychologist’s own interpretation. “Watson found this emphasis on introspection and subjective interpretation to be very unscientific and unhelpful in understand behavior,” (Weibell, 2011). While Watson focused on classical conditioning, B.F Skinner developed operant conditioning, which gave him the name “father of operant conditioning”. “…it means roughly changing of behavior by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response” (McLeod,
Those who attended the Parent Teacher Organization both promoted two contrasting plans for intervening in the very negative and harmful behavior that is occurring within the school. The behaviors being focused on are stealing, bullying and theft. One group of parents suggested to use consequences that are intended to be punishments on the negative, while the other group hopes to focus solely on reinforcing the student’s positive behaviors. Both groups of parents seem to have forgotten everything that they have learned in their Learning and Conditioning course, or they were simply passively listening to their professor because both of their proposals have numerous faults that deem their plans inadequate. Each plan could be detrimental, in differing ways, to the student population that they are attempting to improve.
Operant Conditioning looks at intentional actions that might have an effect on the surrounding environment. Thorndike was the first to conduct the study then behaviourists Skinner developed his study to explain how many aspects of the human behaviour are acquired. Skinner thought the classical conditioning was too simplistic to be a complete explanation of human behaviour. Thorndike 's study looked at the way cats would learn to escape from the puzzle box by trial and error. Cat did not immediately acquire the desirable escape behaviour, however it gradually increased their ability to show it. Thorndike found that responses that led to consequences was more likely to happen again than when any response led to undesirable consequences was
Operant conditioning is a process by which the subject learns due to the consequences of their actions, whether those consequences are negative or positive. The subject displays a specific type of behaviour and the reaction shown towards that behaviour, determines if they are likely to continue to display this type of behaviour, which would happen if positive reinforcement is shown, or if they are unlikely to repeat this type of behaviour, if punishment occurs. Specific tasks can also be encouraged or taught this way through the process of shaping, allowing the subject to learn tasks much more quickly and easily. This type of result was first revealed by Edward L. Thorndike (1898) when he proposed the law of effect. Studies on this topic were
In the 21st century, teachers experience many behavioral issues with students in the classroom and face challenges that are very difficult to resolve. School districts have different expectations about how students must behave during school and teachers have their own expectations about how students must behave in their classroom. Every educator has different classroom expectations and students must follow specific standards; therefore, the responsibility of the teacher is to discuss the standards with all students and make sure those expectations are clear. According to Jones and Jones (2016), teachers whose students made greater achievement gains were observed establishing rules and procedures, and carefully monitoring student’s work. In
Skinner believed that most human behaviors are learned through operant conditioning. The significance of operant conditioning is the immediate reinforcement of a response. Reinforcement changes the frequency of a response or the probability that a response will occur.