Portable instrumentations for field analysis is growing rapidly due to its availability of results, elimination of complications with sample storage and transport, and better cost effectiveness than conventional benchtop analytical systems. Portable analytical instruments need to have compact size, lightweight, robustness, and low power consumption along with automation of operation.1 Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is the separation of a mixture into its components by a strong electric ﬁeld imposed between the two ends of a narrow capillary tube ﬁlled with electrolyte solution, which separated solutions by differences in mobility without the presence of stationary phase.2 With advantageous properties including a wide range of accessible analytes, high separation efficiency, short analysis time, low power requirements, limited consumption of chemicals, and ease of installation, operation, and maintenance, CE is a potential candidate for portable analytical instrumentation.
Analysis using CE are mainly performed using optical detection, utilizing either absorbance or (laser-induced) fluorescence. However optical detection methods can only be applied with high power light source and is not ideal for non-light-absorbing inorganic or organic ions.3 Recently, electrochemical detection methods are suggested as a better option for portable CE, as their completed electronic configuration can easily be miniaturized and translated into the compact, low power format.4 Out of many electrochemical detection methods, capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D), a particular type of conductivity-based detector where the electrodes are not in direct contact with the measured solution, is the most suitable option for CE portable...
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