Population growth- refers to the change refers to a change in population size. It can be a positive or a negative change
When there is no change in population numbers, it is known as Zero population growth.
1) Better medical and heath care
2) More births than death
3) Increased food supply with help of technology
Birth rate- Number of live births per 1000 people per year
Death rate-Number of deaths per 1000 people per year
Natural increase- Birth rate-death rate
(Kaya spread analogy)- the way people are distributed over an area of land- people/square kilometer
1) Physical environment
• People tend to live in areas with fertile sol and non-extreme climate.
Eg. River deltas because sediments can make soil…show more content…
In this essay, the author
Explains how people are distributed over an area of land- people/square kilometer.
Explains that sediments can make soil fertile and this is helpful as people can cultivate crops better (eg nile delta in egypt).
Opines that harsh climate will be unfavorable for crops and living conditions because change in environment can affect lifestyles.
Explains that technology refers to knowledge, skills, and tools people use to meet their daily needs.
Explains that broad bases indicate a high number of young people- this means the birth rate is high and the population growth is rapidly increasing and expanding.
Explains that narrow apexes indicate there are few elderly dependants and that the death rate is high (short life expectancy).
Explains that narrow bases indicate a fewer number of young dependants, which means population growth is declining and the birth rate is low.
Opines that large middle bulges indicate a large number of economically active people. this means that there is an active working population that can support the young and elderly dependants.
Explains that broader apexes indicate an increasing number of elderly dependants in proportion to the young – this means the death rate is low (longer life expectancy).
Explains that the population has a rectangular shape, with almost equal distribution at most age groups.
Opines that this indicates a more very balance among the various age groups.
Explains health care = immunisation, nutritional knowledge, availability of community hospitals, etc aimed at improving the quality of life.
Explains that people in less developed countries are less educated and may be ignorant about family planning methods.
Opines that deep-rooted traditional beliefs or religious beliefs – need sons.
Explains that in some societies, sons are seen as carrying on the family name.
Explains that sons can continue to work in farms unlike daughters who move out upon marriage.
Explains that less developed countries suffer from food shortages due to the growing population may result in malnutrition & starvation.
Analyzes the competition for housing, especially in cities of less developed countries, which do not have enough housing for their growing population.
Explains that such settlements have overcrowded living conditions and do not have electricity, clean water & sanitation which will result in spread of diseases.
Opines that with more babies born each year there needs to be sufficient schools to provide a basic education.
Opines that less developed countries may lack the funds to build schools or hire teachers to educate the young.
Explains that there is only a limited number of jobs available and this results in high unemployment rates and crime rates.
Estimates 30 million new jobs need to be created in the world every year if every new person reaching working age is to have a job.
Opines that more people means more resources are being used, which results in more waste generated.
Explains that population growth refers to a change in population size.
Explains that population density is a measurement of the number of people in an area. cities tend to have high population densities and areas like deserts and forests have low populations.
2) Higher demand for housing
• Competition for housing, especially in cities of less developed countries which do not have sufficient housing for its growing population
• People resorting to living in slums and temporary shelters (squatter settlements)
• Such settlements have overcrowded living conditions and do not have electricity, clean water & sanitation which will result in spread of diseases
Eg. India (cardboard houses and huts) or Mexico
3) Higher demand for education
• With more babies born each year there needs to be sufficient schools to provide a basic education
• Less developed countries may lack the funds to build schools or hire teachers to educate the young
• Thus, not many people are able to attend school and get an education
• Without education, it is difficult to get out of the cycle of poverty
Eg. Nigeria 4) Higher demand for jobs
• Stiff competition for jobs as there are only a limited number of jobs available and this results in high unemployment rates and crime rates such as robberies as jobs are
The lack of fundings for schools plays a huge factor in children 's education. In my
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how the united states educational system has provided opportunities for millions of americans to attend school, but the gap between the lower-income and middle-class students continues to narrow in terms of who will drop out and who would succeed.
Opines that the lack of funding for schools plays a huge factor in children's education.
Compares the amount spent on chicago's urban schools with the cost of education in the suburbs. while rich districts have more than enough resources, funding with great teachers, the urban school struggle to provide students with quality curriculum.
Analyzes how racialized k-12 schools and black and latino students are underrepresented in higher education.
Opines that parents need to be more aware that the time spent at school may not be enough for students to receive proper teaching instructions.
Opines that the school system and parents must provide the proper tools, funds and time to help our children especially those with a low socioeconomic background.
Catastrophic natural disasters and epidemics of disease can lead to drastic reductions in population size. This phenomenon is called a population bottleneck (nature.com). The loss of reproducing individuals means a contraction in the number of alleles being contributed to the gene pool.
In this essay, the author
Explains that catastrophic natural disasters and epidemics of disease can lead to drastic reductions in population size. this phenomenon is called a population bottleneck.
Explains that low effective populations are subject to the influence of genetic drift, a stochastic evolutionary mechanism that moves an allele towards fixation, regardless of fitness advantages or deleterious effects.
Explains that the release of a bottleneck occurs when population size is allowed to increase again, accompanied by increasing genetic diversity and movement towards the original levels of heterozygosity.
Explains the various methods used to detect the occurrence of a bottleneck, such as selective sweep, and analysis of the distribution of mismatched nucleotides.
Argues that at least one bottleneck has occurred in the history of human evolution, and substantial lines of evidence exist supporting this argument.
Argues that there are two primary camps regarding the origin of modern humans, homo sapiens.
Explains that many researchers subscribe to some version of this replacement model plus subsequent population contraction and expansions. the data supporting the occurrence of a bottleneck will be discussed.
Explains that the eruption of mount toba in north west sumatra was the most catastrophic event to shape early human evolution.
Explains that the lake malawi vicinity was subject to intermittent megadroughts between 135,000 and 70,000 years ago. in the driest stages of this arid era, there was inadequate vegetation for the building of fires.
Explains that extreme conditions presumably led to widespread death amongst the contemporary human populations. the eruption of mount toba was approximately 73,000 years ago, and survivors likely resided in three areas of refuge in equatorial africa.
Explains that a bottleneck's effect on future genetic diversity is the effective population size that passes through it.
Explains that genetic data suggests population growth was on the rise around 70,000 to 60,000 years ago. this implies multiple releases of the bottleneck.
Analyzes mitochondrial dna genomes of african individuals to support an african origin of modern humans and suggests periods of ancient population expansion.
Explains that analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms throughout an entire genome, factoring for linkage disequilibrium, can reveal time to coalescence and historical changes in population sizes.
Explains that microsatellite markers from populations around the world were analyzed based on the population's distance from africa. this method of analysis allowed researched to determine where a bottleneck happened, but not when.
Explains how a morphological study of variation in skull size was based on distance from africa, which confirmed an african origin and bottleneck in human population.
Opines that it would be prudent to practice the methods used to arrive at conclusions in another species if the results prove to be repeatable.
Explains that the human genome has a relatively low rate of genetic variability, so it would be unreasonable to compare homo sapien genome diversity to other primates or base expectations for human diversity on that of other organisms.
Argues that despite multiple lines of morphological and molecular data supporting an african origin of homo sapiens, there is compelling data contradicting the hypothesis.
Argues that a bottleneck occurred in the late pleistocene era, following the eruption of mount toba.
The overarching objective of educational policy-makers in developed nations is to make sure each child gets a good education, so that each child is more prepared to contribute to the economy and uphold the economic prosperity. This is why many reforms are in place to better educational systems as stated in a 2012 article by Bensimon, Alicia, Dowd, Longanecker, and Witham. They indicated that, “The nation is in an era of policy reform aimed at improving the productivity and effectiveness of higher education”(Bensimon, Dowd, Longanecker, & Witham, 2012). Without a respectable education, it is harder for people to contribute to the economy like they should.
In this essay, the author
Explains that educational policy-makers in developed nations want to ensure that each child gets a good education so that they are more prepared to contribute to the economy and uphold economic prosperity.
Explains that educational policy-makers in developing countries are trying to build social stability, improve health, increase economic production, and improve social outcomes.
Explains the neoliberal approach to educational policies in developed nations is to insert a more focused business model of education like the chicago boys.
Explains that the social institutional approach to education appreiates knowledge already in the system. the instructors are held to a higher standard and looked at as professionals.
Describes bensimon, dowd, longanecker, and witham (2012). we have goals. now what?
Compares chile's voucher system with that of canada, which was based on knowledge-based learning instead of chile’s stem system.
Analyzes hsieh, c.-t., and urquiola, m. the effects of generalized school choice on achievement and stratification: evidence from chile’s voucher program.
Population growth is expected to follow sigmoidal growth with slow population growth followed by a peak during a large number of reproducing individuals and a leveling off that is called carrying capacity. Carrying capacity is the maximum number of fish that a lake can support at one point in time. This changes depending on how many people fish and the amount of food available so I must take this into
In this essay, the author
Explains that in order to balance the population of both species, they must decrease bluegill population and introduce and increase largemouth bass population.
Explains that largemouth bass and bluegill are larger, longer-lived fish that use size to reach sexual maturity.
Explains that fish using size as a determining factor will have females that are sexually mature at an older age than males and delay their maturity until they reach larger size.
Explains that fish that use size have short reproductive lives and only live to about three years. they will prohibit the fishing of rock bass until they are large enough to reproduce.
Explains that the growth rate of bluegill and largemouth bass depends on life stage, variation among individuals, environmental factors, and density dependant factors.
Explains that fish will grow quickly in early life stages and slow down as soon as they hit sexual maturity. intraspecific competition is the competition for food in an area where there is limited food competition.
Explains population growth is expected to follow sigmoidal growth followed by a peak during large numbers of reproducing individuals and leveling off that is called carrying capacity.
Explains the two categories of assessments, population density and size, which are used to calculate growth rate, standing crop biomass, annual secondary production, and condition factor.
Explains that length and weight relationships can tell us a lot about fish.
Demography is the study of the components of population variation and change. Death rate and birth rate are two determinants of population change. Theory of Demographic Transition is comparatively recent theory that has been accepted by several scholars throughout the world. This theory embraces the observation that all countries in the world go through different stages in the growth of population. A nation's economy and level of development is directly related to that nation's birth and death rates. Population history can be divided into different stages. Some of the scholars have divided it into three and some scholars have divided it into five stages. These stages or classifications demonstrate a transition from high birth and high death rates to low birth and low death rates. The Theory of Demographic Transition suggests that all nations begin in stage one as underdeveloped, third world nations and through time transition into first world nations. Firstly this theory was developed based on the statistic collected in many European countries. In this theory, birth rate and death rate are considered to be the major factors or demographic events for bringing change in population.
In this essay, the author
Explains the first stage of the theory of demographic transition, where the birth rate and death rate are very high.
Explains the second stage of the theory of demographic transition, where birth rate does not come down from the high stationary stage, but death rate gets very much declined, which triggers rapid population change.
Explains the third stage of the theory of demographic transition', where the birth rate starts to fall and the death rate continues to decline, triggering the population to rise steadily.
Explains the fourth stage of the theory of demographic transition'. death rate is at the lowest stage, but birth rate also slowly decreases, so the population will be stable.
Explains the fifth and last stage of the theory of demographic transition', where population is declining due to high death rate as compared to birth rate, and unforeseen calamities.
Explains bhande a.a. and kanitkar, t. principles of population studies, himalayan publishing house, mumbai, india.
Explains that the theory of demographic transition is a comparatively recent theory that has been accepted by several scholars throughout the world.
Argues that the theory of demographic transition is a broad generalization based on the statistics collected in the european countries.
As a result, the community growth intensifies to a point where the income per capita will be so low that its maintenance would turn into untenable; hence the population suffers and contracts, occasioning a new cycle again. Therefore, the theory emphasizes a rigid dependence of population growth upon the food supply.
In this essay, the author
Opines that the analysis of the irish economic problem, the great famine, was a remarkable topic to study by several classical authors such as, thomas malthus, john stuart mill, david ricardo or william senior.
Explains that the tense relationship between ireland and england lasted for many years. there were constant attempts from the english government to exercise control over its neighbors, which were answered with several insurrections.
Explains that the united kingdom of great britain and ireland was created through the act of union in 1801, and the pretended manufacturing sector was not able to emerge, as english textile surpluses absorbed all the irish market demand.
Explains that the irish famine had an immense effect on the demography of the country that lasted for decades.
Explains that the irish population was british subject, so the response to the humanitarian crisis had to be given by the westminster parliament.
Analyzes how adam smith's inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations had a deep impact on the academic and political english world.
Analyzes the irish famine through the population-capital concept, mainly from malthus' population theory point of view.
Argues that the only way of changing this cycle was by adjusting the ratio population to capital, either reducing the first one or increasing the second.
Analyzes the malthus trap reasoning, which emphasizes a rigid dependence of population growth upon the food supply.
Explains that the cyclical reduction of population through famines is a necessary condition for the efficiency of an economy.
Analyzes how the english academics blamed the irish population for this situation. the high natality rate is a typical trait of the agriculture economies, while the potato crop was the only feasible production.
Analyzes the arguments against any kind of charity policy, not only during the great famine but also prior to it.
Opines that the argument did not change when the great famine became a severe issue. it would be an shock for the standards of our society today to understand such behavior.
Explains that john stuart mill's principle of political economy (1848) was the undisputed bible of the 19th century for the economic world.
Analyzes how richard lebow analyzed mill's arguments stating that it can be identified two contrary visions; one arguing for the market on its own and the other for a state’s intervention.
Explains that irish people working on land had no right over them, the land was divided into bits, and the competition for a plot was hard. the improvement of ireland's economic conditions depended on the changes of the cottier system.
Analyzes how the recommendation regarding the cottier-tenant system and how to solve the problems caused by it, are surprisingly heterogenic, even contradictory. he did not have a consistent opinion about the best policies to be applied in order to improve the land ownership system.
Analyzes how the "two mills" opposed removing the peasant system and made strong allegations about the unacceptability of the land expropriation to the irish aristocracy.
Explains that the government would correct the irish situation without any need of capital. the relation capital-population was the key idea of the classical economists.
In, The Population Bomb by, Paul R Ehrlich, he explains the problem of population increase, and how there are people everywhere! The feeling of feeling over populated. He talks about how if there are more people then there is more food that needs to be produced then ate. He explains on the rich people becoming wealthier and the poor are going to be even poorer and there is going to be a starvation. Population is doubling every year and how our energy is turning into
In this essay, the author
Analyzes wes jackson's book, outside the solar village one utopian farm, about the expressions of human beings and how nature fills the world with such great full things.
Analyzes jonathan schell's book, the fate of the earth, where he talks about the extinction of dinosaurs and animals, and how catastrophes could kill everyone or how they could slowly become extinct.
Analyzes how philip k. dick, in do androids dream of electric sheep, explains his first time seeing a raccoon and how he thought there was no owls left from extinction.
Analyzes lewis thomas' the world’s biggest membrane, where he talks about the earth and how it is alive and explains about cosmos.
Analyzes paul ehrlich's book, the population bomb, where he explains the problem of population increase.
Agrees with the population bomb because it explains how population is increasing each year. they think we need a limit on how many kids people can have like they have in china.
Opines that the hunger games movie was made to maintain population at a steady rate.
Demographic transition is a model used to make reference to or represent the transition from high fertility and mortality rates to low birth and death rates when the country is developing from a pre-industrial society to an industrialized economic system. “As they modernize, technology and socio-economic advances reduce the death rates. With further development, birth rates decrease, resulting in a stable population” as noted by (Editorial Board, 2013 pp. 17). There are four phases of demographic transition which are based on if the population is stable, growing, or declining in each. Stage one of demographic transition there is a higher level fluctuation. Which correlate the balance of high death rates and high birth rates within the Pre-modern times the high rates are believed to be high due to the extremely slow population developments. However during the stage one of demographic transition with high fertility and mortality rates as well as slow population growth is conducive to a stable population (Montgomery K. (n.d). Stage two of demographic transition, urbanizing industrializing early expansions there is high birth rates and falling death rate when this occurs there will be a rise in the population growth due to the lower death rates. If there are lower mortality rates there is only population growth there must be an equal balance. Stage three of demographic transition, during the mature industrial times when there is late expansion there was falling birth rate and continued falling of death rate there will continue to be a rise in the population growth (Montgomery K. (n.d). The reason why there will be a continuance in the population growth is because the death total is still higher rate than the b...
In this essay, the author
Explains that demographic transition refers to the transition from high fertility and mortality rates to low birth and death rates when the country is developing from a pre-industrial society to an industrialized economy.
Explains that the population will continue to be high due to the levels of imbalance is already too far gone. the decline in cbr and cdr is attributed to height in contraception, lack of hygiene, urbanization, etc.
Explains that china's population has exhausted demographic resources, leading to higher poverty, inequality, pollution, political domination, and economic effects. the united states has championed slower population growth in poor countries.
Cites cai fang and wang dewen's article on demographic transition and economic growth in china.
Cites nugent.r and seligman.b (n.d.) how demographic changes affect development.
A swiftly growing population does not always seem like a nuisance. An increase in the number of citizens in a country, may for example, signify the improvement in health care, sanitation and a drop in death rates. Developments such as these, naturally lead to an expansion in population. Many areas may easily handle this increase in some areas, but what happens when the population continues to grow at an accelerated pace? The outlook is bleak. Uncontrolled population growth will lead to difficulties regarding food, environmental stress, health and housing.
In this essay, the author
Opines that the 5-year plan for population management is plausible and logical to control a rapidly burgeoning population.
Opines that without effective and immediate intervention on the part of the indian government, india's citizens face a perilous future.
Argues that india's population is growing at a faster rate than its agriculture can support, leading to food shortages and water pollution.
Explains that expansion of health care facilities in karnataka is an excellent first step in population control.
Argues that sterilization is a cost-effective and permanent way to guarantee decline in birth rate, but it is subject to objection from various social, religious and political groups.
Explains that the planning commission intends to implement the new population control program in phases, most of the developments occurring over a 3 year period.
Describes brown, lester r., mathur, hari m. et al. the family welfare programme in india.