Polymerase Chain Reaction

999 Words4 Pages
One may view cloning as copying a living thing and producing multiple copies. People may think of cloning rabbits, sheep or humans. In the field of molecular biology, however cloning is viewed at a genetic molecular level, where a piece of DNA is copied on a large-scale by genetically copying tens to hundreds of thousands of identical DNA fragments. Researchers are developing new methods of cloning by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR was introduced in the 1980s and in recent years Kary Mullis won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his invention of PCR. Today, Scientists today are researching the various sub-fields of cloning, using PCR, in new ways using terminators, enzyme insertion, and types of cloning to produce high efficiencies of genetic material, fixing and improving various techniques, sequencing various genes. The application of PCR has made the process of cloning, cheaper, more efficient, and available to the broader biological communities. PCR is a technique to amplify as little as a single or as many as ten copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. This method relies on thermal cycling, consisting of enzyme repeated heating and cooling cycles aimed at replication of DNA. Primers containing sequences complementary to the target region along with the DNA polymerase are key components to enable selective and repeated amplification. As PCR progresses, the DNA generated is used as a template for replication. As a result the polymerase chain reaction can be extensively modified to perform a wide array of genetic manipulations. In Chemistry, medicine and genetic analysis 2006, (RSC, Advancing the Chemical Sciences) S... ... middle of paper ... ...ines for cloning PCR. Cloning, as we know is a very complex, complicating topic. But once we know the fundamentals of science, various ideas come out and research begins. Researchers today are making PCR more effective in the amount of genetic material produced, becoming cheaper, and testing new methods of cloning with the application of PCR. Word Count: 960 Works Cited Brown, Tom. "Chemistry, medicine and genetic analysis." RSC Advancing the Chemcial Sciences (2006). Costa, G. L., A. Grafasky, and M. P. Weiner. "Cloning and analysis of PCR-generated DNA fragments." Genome Research 3 (1994): 338-45. "Polymerase chain reaction -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 19 Jan. 2010. . Zhou, Ming-Yi, and Celso E. Gomez-Sanchez. "Unversal TA Cloning." Molecular Biology 1st ser. 2 (2000): 1-7.
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