If one would be asked ‘what is harm?’ or ‘what is the major cause of harm to people?’, one would most certainly think of interpersonal violence and the often resulting injuries and death. Such inference would not be surprising since our everyday lives are over-saturated with media headlines, TV shows and literature on crimes conventionally known as violent interpersonal acts such as assault and murder. It is the most visible and obvious crimes that involve direct victims that attract the most attention (Roberts, 2009). While these types of crimes that harm single individuals are important and should not be neglected, there are harms and injustices that result in much more serious consequences involving a much larger number of casualties and fatalities but which rarely provoke public and political outrage and scarcely appear on newspapers (Roberts, 2009; Pemberton, 2007; Hillyard and Tombs, 2007).…show more content…
In this essay, the author
Opines that the most visible and obvious crimes that involve direct victims are important and should not be neglected, but there are harms and injustices that result in much more serious consequences.
Describes the ignored or hidden social harms caused by corporations and states, such as the marketing of known faulty products, corporations promoting unsafe and life-threatening substances, the abuse involved in the transportation of live animals, and the international dumping of toxic waste.
Explains that pollution has affected the general public and local communities. in bhopal, india, in 1984, 3,000 to 5,000 residents lost their lives due to the release of methyl isocyanate by an industrial company.
Explains that under swedish environmental legislation, 14% of prosecutions were for littering. in britain, 237 shopping trolleys had to be removed from a local river.
Explains that wildlife may be affected and even endangered by pollution. the inequality of resource use and its consequences are particularly stark in the us and the industrialised north.
Explains that the us defense department generates more toxic waste than the top 5 chemical corporations combined.
Explains that in the us, air pollution is primarily caused by industry and car use, trucks and buses being responsible for nearly 75% of the estimated cancer risk from auto-related pollution.
Explains that us water quality standards are declining and poor health cases caused by the reduced quality of tap water.
Explains that the us environment suffers from 25 billion pounds of toxic pollutants each year, including lead exposures, which threaten with neurological damage to 2 million us children, especially afro-american children residing in inner-city areas.
Illustrates how victimisation resulting from pollution may exceed victimization caused by conventional crimes such as assault and murder. the distribution of environmental problems is of growing concern because poor and disadvantaged communities are directly affected by the environmental abuse.
Some examples of such events are marketing of known faulty products, corporations promoting unsafe and life-threatening substances, the abuse involved in the transportation of live animals, the failure to enforce health and safety standards at work, the international dumping of toxic waste and pollution (Roberts, 2009). The list is not exhaustive but this essay will focus on pollution as social harm.
There are numerous instances of pollution across the globe which have affected the general public and local communities. In Bhopal, India, in 1984, 3,000 to 5,000 residents lost their lives due to the release of methyl isocyanate by an industrial company (Croall, 2007).
In the year of 2000, under the Swedish Environmental legislation 14% of prosecutions were for littering and in Britain 237 shopping trolleys were removed from a local river for which a major supermarket was prosecuted (Croall,
...nvironmental crimes can lead to overwhelming disasters in which mankind may not be able to restore. In order to resolve the Ecocrime paradox, first step should be heightening people’s awareness towards crime against the environment. In a democratic system, it may be feasible; however, in other authoritarian-type governments, it may be very difficult unless powerful figures within their system happens to be knowledgeable about long-term consequences of environmental crimes and acts upon them.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how harry burkhart's childhood in chechnya explains his criminal behavior stemming from social learning and situational factors.
Analyzes vincent li's murder case using the ecological model, and nadja benaissa’s case. the degree of culpability depends on the three elements.
Compares the causes of crimes committed by gein and pickton. both criminals lacked proper socialization during their critical development stage.
Explains that while gein's victims' body parts were used to mimic women, while pickton’s were treated as a lower forms of life and were fed to the farm pigs.
Explains that media is a powerful tool when it comes to manipulating the public. children tend to be vulnerable to various media especially in today's violent-filled contents.
Argues that the three wills, public, corporate, and political, must work together in order to resolve the ecocrime paradox.
Our neglect is being made apparent to us in essays regarding environmental issues. Nearly every author has an opinion on the environmental malpractice of corporations and their representatives, but even these critics fail to offer a strategy for curbing the negligence of business firms. This failure encourages an attitude of hopelessness among the environmentally concerned members of society and reminds us that a long overdue effort to uncover answers is in order. We need go no further than the source of the problem to find a workable solution: Corporations must hold themselves responsible to the public trust.
In this essay, the author
Explains that the 19th-century legal scholar schultes described public trust rights as 'unalienable.' regulations on the use of particular natural bodies understood as public property are no longer strongly enforced.
Opines that corporations must hold themselves accountable to the public trust to solve the problem.
Opines that accountability for the preservation of the ecosystem must be assigned to some individual or party.
Argues that the executive must be political while being representative, and his obligations extend in many directions.
Explains that a ceo should be an expert on the inner workings of the firm.
Opines that an executive can never safeguard against all dangers within the firm, but performance at an optimal level is attainable and necessary.
Analyzes how the executive's balancing of important, and at times seemingly contradictory, missions should be calibrated and implemented.
Opines that the public-minded leader of the internally healthy corporation must decide on those guiding principles that will ultimately decide the company's fate.
Analyzes how the american business model often leads executives to adopt practices that boost short-term profit margins to seduce investors and satisfy shareholders, while compromising employees and endangering the public.
Opines that a new administrative regime helped to restore the positive image of the company in large part and win back the support of wall street and main street.
Explains that profits derive from more than just minimizing costs and maximizing revenue. a healthy relationship with the public is a necessity for firms to remain in business.
Argues that environmentalist principles do not conflict with economic prosperity, since businesses aggregate scarce resources in a manner that accommodates public demand.
Argues that machiavelli's advice is even more relevant to 21st century businesses which can claim no "divine right" to existence as did the 15th century king.
Argues that arguments against the foregoing proposition arise based on the premise that present-day firms exhibit laughable concern for the environment in their business models and yet experience no significant pressure from the public to curtail their disobedience
Opines that the negative public reaction to the bush administration's carbon dioxide and arsenic positions reinforces the lesson that power and profit rest in the public.
Describes cronin, john, and kennedy. "king john to general electric." the riverkeepers.
Explains that milton friedman's "the social responsibility of business is to increase its profits." cases and readings in markets, ethics and law.
Explains machiavelli, niccolo, and lee a. jacobus' a world of ideas.
Analyzes reich, robert b., "a shareholder, and a citizen." the new york times, 5 november 1999.
Explains wal-mart reports record sales and earnings for quarter and year.
...tained a streak of sustaining a strong society when suggesting their laws into the Criminal Justice System. Nonetheless, the recent proposal discussed on whether environmental harm should be criminalized has sparked controversy. There are many pros and cons that can be acknowledged in this case. One main thing is certain; the environment is very sacred to every human being and should be well cared for. Thus, there are many other techniques that can do this rather than it simply being placed in the Criminal Code. Civilians need to have a fair chance to deal with problems and as a whole; they can come together to help this environmental issue. Non-legal regulators can work together with society to better our world. Taking legal action would make things more complicated than need be when considering a law that has more negatives to our justice system than positives.
In this essay, the author
Argues that over-criminalization is related to excessive punishments, such as being locked in a jail cell.
Opines that the new law is in order to keep a clean environment and avoid humans from becoming ill. the health care costs of prisoners are rising due to an outbreak of hepatitis c.
Opines that the proposed law would take attention from other things, such as the economy as a whole.
Opines that the law reform commission of canada has maintained a streak of sustaining strong society when suggesting their laws into the criminal justice system.
Explains that the criminal justice system gives civilians the opportunity to receive integrity through a legal system while allowing them to deal with negligence and misconduct.
How do you feel when you drive by some sort of factory or plant and you see an obnoxiously large smoke stack spewing fumes into the air or a drainage pipe of chemical runoff that flows into a water supply? The sense of disgust from the thought of how these companies get away with this action not only concur with opinion of environment activists but also involves the United States government. It was not long ago that the government realized that these effects were harmful to the world around us, which caused the government to create several groups to enforce laws and regulations against these unethical operating businesses. These questions are similar to those frequently asked by many economists when discussing the subject of business environmental laws and ethics. A business must decide how they want to run their business, unethically by cutting corners or abiding by ethical and law standards. This issue comes down to the standpoint wherever businesses may fall on if they care more about using unethical ways to gain some sort of advantage or if they would rather operate in a way with limits but complies with ethical and law standards. (MODIFY THESIS)
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how the united states government enforced laws and regulations against these unethical operating businesses. a business must decide how they want to run their business unethically by cutting corners or abiding by ethical standards.
Explains that the united states government has had a hands off approach regarding business environmental corporate ethics. the movement enacted the largest environmental protection agency (epa) in 1970.
Explains that before epa was established, many businesses disregarded the effects of their manufacturing practices on the environment.
Proposes creating a voice for business leaders who operate up to code and regulation furthermore supporting their ethical values.
Opines that even the business world has its share of rule breakers. the leaders of these companies portray their ethical value to do anything to make a buck whether it be harming the environment or people around them.
Analyzes how a survey of new hampshire's largest corporation, conducted by brian gottlob, answers the question of why companies fail to comply with environmental regulations.
Explains that environmental protection and the social responsibility of firms can be directly linked to unethical business practices. some companies prefer to make a profit rather than be considered with the wellbeing of the environment.
Explains that companies who fail to follow rules and regulations list a number of reasons why they cannot operate environmentally and ethically friendly.
Explains how many corporations contribute to the destruction of the environment. non-law abiding companies do not understand the serious harm they are causing to their surroundings by instituting bad business practices.
Agrees with the group of people on the opposing stance that all companies should not only operate up to regulation standards but also operate in an ethical way.
Pollution is affecting many individuals and life, as we know it. We need to do something about how it’s affecting our world. That’s why I urge the issue that more people should realize that pollution is an issue that needs to be prevented because of its negative consequences. Which are health affects, the total destruction of environments, and the death of animals and plants. More awareness must be brought up amongst the people and they must realize the long-term benefits it has for the world.
In this essay, the author
Urges more people to realize that pollution is an issue that needs to be prevented because of its negative consequences, which are health affects, the destruction of environments, and the death of animals and plants.
Explains that pollution is causing the destruction of environments and habits resulting in many adverse affects. the statistics released by the indonesian ministry of higher education show how much pollution can affect a certain environment.
Explains that pollution destroys plants and affects the health of animals and humans. the world health organization states that air pollution is now the world’s largest single environmental health risk.
Explains that many abandoned areas and cities in the world are showing the detrimental effects of pollution. the town of pizzeria, oklahoma, was abandoned in 2009, and the nuclear power plant incident in chernobyl was also abandoned.
Explains that antipollution methods save industries money in the long run. the kirsch center and the mlc building are environmentally friendly and save de anza tons of money.
Explains that people are against pollution prevention because of long legislation bureaucracy that costs time and money, and the cost of implementing it.
Argues that the biggest issue with preventing pollution is the cost, whether it is affordable and worth the costs of implementation.
Argues that the argument on pollution prevention is a no brainer because the pros outweigh the cons. it's time for our generation to stop conforming to the ideologies of being conservative and short sighted.
On December 3, 1984 the residents of a Bhopal, India awoke to a toxic cloud of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas that had been discharged from the near-by Union Carbida India Limited plant. The deadly cloud infiltrated hundreds of shanties and huts as it slowly drifted in the cool night awaking sleeping residents to coughing, choking, and stinging eyes. By dawn the cloud had cleared and many were dead or injured.
In this essay, the author
Explains the plant design that allowed mic to reach the atmosphere untreated through the vent gas scrubber.
Explains that substandard materials in the mic plant piping system are a source of contamination.
Explains the modification of original plant design with installation of the jumper line between the process vent header and the relief valve vent.
Opines that union carbide's safety audits of the bhopal plant were a failure.
Explains the cost-cutting concern over safety manifested in the reduction of maintenance manning levels and shutdown of the refrigeration unit.
Describes the deadly methyl isocyanate (mic) gas discharged from the near-by union carbida india limited plant in bhopal, india.
Illustrates the dangers of multinational corporations, capitalism, and white-collar crime if corporations do not follow safety regulations and practice unsafe business practices.
Analyzes how the survivors of the world's worst industrial accident have continued to protest for adequate health care and compensation.
Pollution is so harmful to human beings. Polluted water can cause many kinds of diseases, such as diarrhea, enteritis, and so on. And sometimes the diseases even take man’s life. Dirty air or air-borne garbage causes stinging eyes and running nose. Pollutants are destructive. They will cause runs in stockings and crack rubber tires and they always eat away at stone and rust iron. Time and time again, there are serious accidents that polluted the air. For example, At 1986 there was a bad accident at a nuclear power station in Russia. A cloud of radiation crossed the whole Europe. It is said that 125,000 people died in Russia as a result of illnesses caused by that accident. In 1984 there was an accident at a factory in India and a dangerous cloud gas covered the town of Bhopal. Over 2,500 people were killed that night, and hundreds and thousands of people were injured. Many of the injured lost their sight, and it really dangerous, even in our imagination.
In this essay, the author
Opines that environmental pollution plays a very important role in the biggest questions in our everyday life.
Explains that pollution is harmful to human beings. polluted water can cause diarrhea, enteritis, and so on.
Recommends designing and developing clean cars and clean fuels, and restricting the use of private cars.
Opines that water pollution is a dangerous public hazard and that governments should take measures to deal with it.
Suggests that government should publish a law to cancel the "free" bags in supermarkets like publix and walmart.
Concludes that it will be a long way for us to go to have "clean" world. they believe in the future, there are only green trees, red flowers, singing birds and all the beauties in our campus.
Violence causes a great deal of suffering and harm in the world today and yesterday (Cross 2013). Peace and conflict researchers are undeniably justified in their selection of inter and intra-state violence as objects of study because the social context for both the performance and understanding of violence is of central importance (Cross 2013). However it is surprisingly rare to find a definition of violence (Moore 2003). Thus uncertainty prevails as to whether violence is limited to physical abuse or includes verbal and psychological abuse (Moore 2003). Agreeing with Moore (2003), Galtung (1969) said it is not important to arrive at a definition of violence because there are obliviously many types of violence. Violence is not
In this essay, the author
Argues that peace and conflict researchers are justified in their selection of inter and intra-state violence as objects of study because the social context for both the performance and understanding of violence is of central importance.
Argues that violence is present when human beings are being influenced so that their actual somatic and mental realization is below their potential realizations.
Explains that violence against aboriginal girls and women is not subsidiary, it spans generations and lifetimes. structural violence is a hidden form of operational violence.
Explains that violence against women is not only autochthonous, but ubiquitous and occurs throughout the whole life span of women.
Explains that the root cause of violence against aboriginal women lies in the interconnections between the aboriginals’ race, culture, class and gender.
Efforts to improve the standard of living for humans--through the control of nature and the development of new products--have also resulted in the pollution, or contamination, of the environment. Much of the world's air, water, and land is now partially poisoned by chemical wastes. Some places have become uninhabitable. This pollution exposes people all around the globe to new risks from disease.
In this essay, the author
Explains the effects of pollution on the environment and states that governments have passed laws to limit or reverse the threat of environmental pollution.
Explains the branch of science that deals with how living things, including humans, are related to their surroundings is called ecology.
Explains that the reduction of earth's resources has been closely linked to the rise in human population. since about 1650, the problem of overcrowding multiplies.
Explains that the cumulative effect of air pollution poses a grave threat to humans and the environment.
Explains that although the release of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere is against the law in most countries, accidents can happen, often with tragic results.
Explains that rivers, streams, canals, lakes, and oceans are currently used as receptacles for every imaginable kind of pollution.
Explains that some towns still foul streams by pouring raw sewage into them. farm fertilizers in some regions fill groundwater with nitrates, making the water unfit to drink.
Explains that overuse of land results in erosion of topsoil, which leads to over-silting or sedimentation of rivers and streams. recycling is an answer to the garbage problem.
Explains that natural radioactivity has always been part of the natural environment. some scientists are concerned that humans have introduced a considerable amount of additional radiation.
Explains that heat can be added to streams and lakes in a number of ways.
Explains that the average global temperature can be affected when the products of combustion are emitted into the air, especially at high altitudes.
Explains that noise pollution is becoming an unpleasant fact of life in cities, where traffic and building construction reverberates among high-rise buildings, creating a constant din.
Explains that some pollution problems require cooperation at regional, national, and international levels. the clean air act, safe drinking water act and superfund set standards for healthy air and water and safe disposal of toxic chemicals.
People have long used the sea as a dump for our wastes. Most of the pollution dumped into the ocean comes from human activities on land. Marine pollution is defined as the introduction into the ocean by humans of substance or energy that changes the quality of the water or affects the physical, chemical, or biological environment.
There are different types of pollution. One of them is natural pollutants.
In this essay, the author
Defines marine pollution as the introduction into the ocean by humans of substance or energy that changes the quality of the water or affects the physical, chemical, or biological environment.
Explains that by the time the first oceanographers began testing, the industrial revolution was well underway and changes had already occurred. pollutants cause damage by interfering directly or indirectly with biochemical processes of an organism.
Explains that oil seeps have been leaking large quantities of oil into the ocean for millions of years. we depend on marine transportation for petroleum products, offshore drilling, near shore refining and street runoff carrying waste oil from automobiles.
Explains that motor oil is more toxic than crude oil or new oil because it has developed carcinogenic and metallic components from the heat and pressure within internal combustion engines.
Explains that crude oil spills are larger in volume and more frequent than refined oil. the remaining insoluble components from sticky layers prevent free diffusion of gases, clog adult organisms feeding structures, kill larvae, and decrease sunlight available for photosynthesis.
Explains that sewage is a semisolid mixture of organic matter containing bacteria and viruses, toxic metal compounds, synthetic organic chemicals, and other debris.
Explains that until 1992, 2 billion liters of partially treated sewage poured into boston harbor every day. treatment plants in southern california are sometimes overwhelmed after heavy rainstorms.
Explains that electrical generating plants use seawater to cool and condense steam. the sea water is returned to the ocean about 6 degrees celsius warmer, differences that overstress marine organisms in the effluent area.
Explains that some recent power plant designs minimize environmental impact by pumping colder water from further offshore, warming it to the temperature of the seawater surrounding the plant site, and then releasing it.