On the other side of the world, off in the United States, American intellectuals began to reason with these ideas as well. As a result, the influence on the profound of modern economic and political thought had a huge impact on the United States, resulting in one of the most important documents in known in American history; the Constitution. John Locke, one of the leading philosophers of the European Enlightenment was very important when it came to political thought in the United States. His ideas of the reasons, nature, and limits of the government became especially important in the development of the Constitution. In one of his most famous writings of that time, Two Treatises on Government (1689), Locke established a theory where personal liberty could coexist with political power ; meaning that the people would agree to obey the government and in return, the government would have the responsibility of respecting the people’s natural rights.
Machiavelli influenced Rousseau in the context of political economy and social contract. During the sixteenth century the political foundation was of interest to Machiavelli. He wrote, “The Prince” as a guide to political power. It was his analysis on how a powerful ruler could be created. Although most seen his writing as harsh, it allowed others the idea of what they believed the perfect civilized government should look like.
Scholars employ a variety of sources to examine how this process happens, and as a result, determine that means of authority evolve over time. Present day political and social upheaval has roots in the struggle for dominance on the European and, later, global stage. Scholars identify several catalysts for dominance in this period. First, the Enlightenment ideals threatened existing hierarchies by encouraging the people’s right to determine how they should be ruled. Once they established how to govern themselves so the majority attained more political influence, people were then able to concentrate on external means of power.
Lily Benda CIV 202 Professor Heern 23 April 2014 The Enlightenment, a period marked by significant changes in rational thought, secularism, social equality, individual freedom, right to property, and human rights, occurred during the eighteenth century. The scientific revolution of the seventeenth century brought about the fundamental ideas on which the Enlightenment was based. Trade and science at the time were already spreading but during the Enlightenment era, these ideas started in Europe, spread globally, and became popular. This new transformation of thought and everyday life impacted the world on a global scale by bringing up new ways to make the government more rational. During the eighteenth century, these new ideas on scientific thought, advanced technologies, and new interests in trade-helped spread and impact the Enlightenment globally.
The best way to express the ideals of Enlightenment was to work through the people who were the most po... ... middle of paper ... ...ny by choosing their representatives. Therefore, the Enlightenment age was an important time in the history of both Europe and America. The ideas of the Enlightenment not only brought new ideas in the way of human thinking, but it also established new understandings of sovereignty and the relation of the leaders to their subjects. First, the Enlightenment absolutism took place. Peter the Great is the most accurate example of this way of governing.
In the time of Renaissance, which has been characterized by the age of reawakening of humanism. The prince plays one of the most important role in the dramatic developing of political in the Renaissance period and still hold an universal impact on today's politicians. However its views points has been debating over time. Machiavelli maintain the thoughts which is the essential for the cruel to a successful leader. To those of view points according to Machiavelli's thoughts are the arguments that a prince is to be clement or cruel, to be feared or loved.
In The Discourses on Livy Machiavelli discusses things that were currently happening within Rome as a result of the public council, the decision made by the Roman people in an attempt to increase the empire, as well as the actions made by select men which made Rome a successful nation. During the times of political uncertainty Machiavelli responds to the need for a stable political structure and the moral basis for which this structure would exists, as well as the interest of the individual and the state in conjunction with the Italian environment in an age of great city states. Italian politics during the 15th century were in a state of flux as a result of the Renaissance in the 14th century. Machiavelli attempts to outline the ideal autocratic regime which would emphasize the need for realism over the currently favored idealist mindset. Current Italian political and ethical goals were based on the idea that the people must wait for changes to occur by chance, whereas Machi... ... middle of paper ... ...es…but enables men of private fortune…” (Machiavelli Chapter XIV).
Humanism, the revival of classical learning and speculative inquiry beginning in the fifteenth century in Italy during the early Renaissance, disabled the monopolies of the church's learning, and spread the ability to gain knowledge. The invention of the printing press with moveable type, enabled the supply of books circulating to expand, leading to increased ideas throughout Europe. The Reformation took many forms in society, but all of them mainly deal with the idea that knowledge is power, and power was obtained easier because of the creation of the printing blocks, therefore, enabling people to change society because they were more educated. In conclusion, the preceding information illustrates the cultural periods of Enlightenment; Greco-Roman; Judeo-Christian; Renaissance-Reformation; and Industrialization-Modernism. Each have examples clearly stated, and explain how they relate to the period.
In the late 1800’s, before World War 1, European countries saw a dramatic change within their societies. New and more liberal ideas began to emerge, and challenged the traditional European beliefs. Ordinary, average people started to ponder on new practices that would forever change society. Ideologies such as Marxism, Freudianism, and women’s movement not only revolutionized the face of Europe, but also shaped the continent’s government and society. Marxism was a theory from Karl Marx that spread a thought for communist regime.
This era ushered in a search for new sources of revenues, and focus turned toward the colonization of the New World. The Portuguese, Spanish, and English directed many efforts of colonization and development toward this new land in an attempt to establish themselves as the economic leaders of the world. As mercantilism began to change, so did the power flux of the European countries. Thus began the shaping of North America as we know it. The Age of Expansion brought many changes to medieval Europe.