Philosophy and Education: From Elitism to Democracy ABSTRACT: From its first appearance in western culture, philosophy has been considered able to build up reality, to educate people, and to disclose truth. Plato proposed philosophers as governors in life-long pursuit of philosophical learning. Socrates was the ideal paradigm of an educating philosopher: he tried to wake up human minds so that they could be aware of themselves and of the world, criticizing tradition and prejudices in a logically consistent perspective. A critical and dialogic approach—not by mere chance defined as "Socratic"—to problems has been considered until now the most profitable method of teaching. Socrates is a pioneer in discussing the question of a philosophical (paideia), as he defined his method "maieutic."
Plato took it up as a principle of Being. “If the concept represents all the reality of things, the reality must be something in the ideal order, not necessarily in the things themselves, but rather above them, in a world by itself” (Chaput, C. p.2). For the concept,therefore, Plato substitutes the Idea. He completes the work of Socrates by teaching that the objectively real Ideas are the foundation and justification of scientific knowledge. At the same time he has in mind a problem which claimed much attention from pre-Socratic thinkers, the problem of change.
2 care for nor give thought to prudence, and truth, and how your soul will be the best possible?” (Kolak and Thomson, 95). Plato’s Socrates was very concerned with the soul, which will be the next topic of our discussion. The soul,... ... middle of paper ... ...wledged Aristotle’s admiration to him. Clearly a refutation is a sign of a heavy influence from Parmenides to Aristotle. In this essay I discussed the influence that Pre-Socratics had on both Platonic and Aristotelian movements of thought.
Plato's Vision Of The Ideal State As Presented In The Republic The concept of questioning meaning of life, the universe and everything has become debauched in modern society. But there is an exigency for and a value in the procedure of reasoning through aspects of our experience beginning with moral principles to existence. It can, for ordinary peoples as much as for professional philosophers, enlivening, vivid, and developmental. Plato is one of the most influential thinkers in human history. His philosophies have made a far-reaching impact on the human societies and have laid the foundation of many avenues of knowledge.
Although, both Plato and Aristotle criticized their teacher’s works, they were also influenced by them. Both Plato and Aristotle developed their own modes of knowledge acquisition; Plato’s Platonic Idealism and Aristotle’s Analytic Empiricism. In this paper, my objective is to identify the differences in the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, which lead to the development of two contradictory modes of knowledge acquisition and their influence on succeeding thinkers. Plato (428-328 BC) was a successful philosopher, influenced by people like Heraclitus, Parmenides, and the Pythagoreans: But, the most influential person in Plato’s life was Socrates (Nicholas). Socrates used oral arguing to cross-examine people, asking them to define an idea or concept and through argument, improve their answer to give a better definition and thus gain wisdom; this was called the Socratic Method.
May be ordinary human mind is not ready or cannot comprehend certain ideas and concepts that philosophers are presenting to us. Perhaps Socrates was correct in his believe that certain things should be left to experts. Experts who have a comprehensive and authoritative knowledge of particular area which often lightly understood by masses. For example: as I read The First Dialogue Between Hylas and Philonous, I followed Berkley’s logic and was convinced that “to be is to be perceived” makes complete sense; however, Berkley’s philosophy questions my common-sense believes. It is hard to imagine that the world can consist only of ideas that exists in my mind.
His student, Aristotle, who handled the same subject next, held incompatible and sometimes opposing views on the matter. Their views were greatly influenced by their metaphysical beliefs, as were most philosophical theories at the time. In investigating the two philosophers’ conceptions, Sophocles’ tragedy Antigone will be the subject on which they’ll be examined critically. In order to grasp Aristotle’s views on art it is important to look at his metaphysics first. However, since his metaphysics are essentially a response to the theories of his teacher, it is central to our examinations to familiarize ourselves with Plato’s understanding of the universe.
Not only is he famous for making his own theories, but he is also widely known for disproving previous theories and conclusions that were believed to be true. Aristotle’s thoughts, experiments, and reasoning has changed the modern world as it is known by disproving previous theories and paving the way for science and logic to correctly explain the details of the world. Aristotle was a man of logic and proof, even considering logic as an equivalent to verbal reasoning. This system of thought obtains to the subject-predicate form being the primary expression of truth in which its properties are shown to inhere in certain substances. In every discipline of human knowledge, we seek to establish the things of some sort have features of a certain kind.
Aristotle’s plethora of ideas was and has been adopted by past and present philosophers as they approached subject matter that had very few definitive answers. Aristotle was born in circa 384 B. C. and died in 322 B.C. According to Kim’s introduction, Aristotle considered ethics to be the “art of living well.” His writings reflected a perpetual quest to gain a better understanding of human character and how it is intertwined with virtues that are the impetus for human happiness. Aristotle has been deemed the writer of the first “systematic treatise” on ethics. He was essentially the first person to approach ethics from a more organized and deeper perspective.
Further, in life we encounter many physical objects in which we can touch and feel. However, what makes these objects real? Plato introduced his metaphysics idea of Theory of Forms, which presents a view of what makes an object real. In this paper, I will touch upon the Theory of Forms and explain that a world of forms does exist separately from concrete/permanent things. One of the greatest philosophers to contribute the philosophy is Plato, who was a student of Socrates.