He illustrates his point by comparing QE to Aristotle. Pincoffs claims this is a radical departure from virtue ethics that centers around the question "how should we resolve the perplexities?" rather than "how shoul... ... middle of paper ... ...eing rule-responsible (essence of morality). Pincoffs claims that the essence of morality is confused with the idea that some moral rules (rule-responsibility) are socially essential. But to grant that rule-responsibility is socially essential does not grant that it is the essence of morality.
Socrates refutes this and says that though the tyrant may do what he sees fit, it is not really what he wants to do. His argument to support this is found in moral intelligence and the want to do the best... ... middle of paper ... ... doing what we want when the outcome is wicked. Moral goodness is a form of knowledge to him, and that knowledge is necessary in order to do well. It is the good that we strive to achieve by doing what we see fit, but if we do what we see fit and actually create a wicked outcome we are not truly doing what we want. In order to do what we want we must have the knowledge of moral goodness to do what is right, and not to inflict suffering on someone else.
How can Ethics Compel us to do Good? In Critique of Practical Reason, Immanuel Kant attempts to establish a valid basis for ethics. Specifically, he wants to develop an ethical system that has compelling power. He views the traditional, happiness-based ethics as insufficient because they lack compelling power, meaning that they do not have the power to curtail our actions. His solution is that people should be guided by the moral law, which can be discovered by pure reason alone, and which says that any action should be judged by whether or not it could serve as a principle in a universal law.
Thus, those who rule regard the task of ruling as not in their self-interest, but something intrinsically evil. This is where Plato’s argument that justice is in one’s self-interest is disturbed. This paper will discuss the idea that justice is not in one’s self-interest, and thus does not pay. For Plato’s thesis – justice pays – to be validated, he has to prove two things, the first being that justice is inherently good. In
Kant's duty to have no worldview is because it's his own way of thought in a realistic way. In a nutshell PowerPoint his theory is above the world view Idealism/ Realism, But in deeper thought, " Kant claims that ethics should not be dependent on a particular worldview, his “duty based ethical theory is rooted in logic and language, and is in line with an Idealistic perspective"(RAE). Simply put," the Good is that which is good for everyone. The Good is that which is universal"( In a nutshell). Kant also believed that "it's our duty to align our intentions with the good as identified by the application of the Categorical Imperative" ( Immanuel Kant).
Kant argued that the Categorical Imperative (CI) was the test for morally permissible actions. The CI states: I must act in such a way that I can will that my maxim should become a universal law. Maxims which fail to pass the CI do so because they lead to a contradiction or impossibility. Kant believes this imperative stems from the rationality of the will itself, and thus it is necessary regardless of the particular ends of an individual; the CI is an innate constituent of being a rational individual. As a result, failure ... ... middle of paper ... ...d in the discussion of promise keeping and beneficence, identifiable logical or practical contradictions arise when attempting to universalize morally impermissible maxims (according to the CI).
However, their reasons are parallel to each other. Mill argues that actions have to be a focus on the concept of utility, since actions might be morally wrong and still be part of maximizing happiness. In Kant 's perspective, people have to do what is good based on their duty to the general public and not because it is morally right. Kant also believes that people’s rights are not to be disobeyed for the benefit of everyone. Mill would disagree with this theory since Utilitarianism accepts the concept to violate others rights if the outcome brings general happiness.
When considering the Platonic form of goodness, Kant's idea of the good will is similar in that it adheres to a theoretical universal, and that reason is essential to its discovery. However, the concept of the Golden Rule is not important to Plato and he would certainly scoff at the exclusivity of the term "moral." But at the heart of the comparison lies the .sim• arity in the importance of reason, the importance of duty, and the idea of a universal. 9 Ibid.,953. 10 Ibid.
As will later be discussed in detail, Martin, Meaningful Work, disagrees with this opinion; Martin believes personal ideals and morals play a large role. This paper will explore not only both sides of this argument, but also exactly what an act of duty is, what would be required to make an act moral, how good will plays a part, and just how important autonomy is when the laws of morality are involved. As I stated above, Kant believes that to act from duty, one is required to perform out of respect for the moral law. But what exactly is the moral law? The moral law is, in the simplest terms, rational will that is guided by neutrality and universalized reason.
Ingratitude is certainly not a matter of fact then, and so it must be discounted because it “arises from complication of circumstances w... ... middle of paper ... ...f his inner being. His sentiments, if only for himself, remain within him. “One thing can always be a reason, why another is desired. Something must be desirable on its own account, and because of its immediate accord or agreement with human sentiment and affection” (87) In conclusion, I believe that Hume thinks that reason, while not completely useless, is not the driving force of moral motivation. Reasons are a means to sentiments, which in turn are a means to morality, but without reasons there can be still sentiments.