Ages 2 to 6 or 7 years of age are at this stage of development (Gordon & Browne, 2014). During this stage children develop the ability and capacity to think (Gordon & Browne, 2014). This is when imaginative play develops (Gordon & Browne, 2014). The third stage during early childhood is concrete operational, occurring between ages 6 to 12 (Gordon & Browne, 2014). The basic concept during this stage is reasoning during which children develop the ability to think logically (Gordon & Browne, 2014).
Preoperational: two to seven years. Children during this stage are able to identify pictures and symbols. Concrete: Seven to eleven years. At this point children are very concrete in their development but also children start to develop logically and are more organized. Formal Stage: Twelve and up.
It is crucial for us to understand the fundamentals of the development of a child as there are countless ways to conduct a lessons and to understand why children would react differently at this timing to another timing when they are completing a certain task. Furthermore, children develop uniquely and their development milestones differs from one another. Thus, a teacher must be cognizant of each child’s progression before conducting the class. This will help the teacher to plan and organize the lesson materials and the lesson time appropriately. There are two theories I would like to share in regards to child development in peer social interaction and cognitive development.
MONTESSORI PROGRAM A Developmentally Appropriate program is based on theories of child development, understanding the individual needs, strengths and weaknesses of the child obtained by observation of the child and the child’s interests, cultural and socioeconomic background as defined by the society, family and community he comes from, and by assessing what is individually appropriate for each child. The Montessori Approach to education succeeds because it is based on developmentally appropriate practices to help the wholesome growth of the child. The curriculum is based on keen observation of the child and his interaction and experimentation with an environment specially constructed and prepared for his optimal development. Dr Maria Montessori is a pioneer in the development of a learning and teaching philosophy that could be defined as revolutionary. At a time when the accepted traditional methods of teaching were more adult directed, the Montessori Method focused on child directed learning.
The theorist, Jean Piaget, was most interested in the development of children’s intellectual organization. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development begins with the sensorimotor stage. Sensorimotor intelligence is thinking by observing objects and acting in response to them. Throughout the stages the child understands that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen which is referred to as object permanence. When a child exhibits a behavior that creates an experience that leads to repetition of the behavior this is known as a circular reaction.
2013, p. 19). Vygotsky believed that culture plays a big role in learning. Piaget believed that a child's struggle to create equilibrium between an old schema and a new experience leads to achieving equilibrium, “eventually bringing a child to a new stage of development” (Lightfoot et al. 2013, p. 21). Vygotsky believed that the primary source of development is a child’s “social interaction within a zone of proximal development” and The goal of development is reached when a child is able to participate in “cultural activities and practices” (Lightfoot et al.
Cognition is the process involved in thinking and mental activity, such as attention, memory and problem solving. In this essay on cognitive development I will compare and contrast the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, who were both influential in forming a more scientific approach to analyzing the cognitive development process of the child active construction of knowledge. (Flanagan 1996 P.72). I will then evaluate the usefulness of these theories in understanding a child's development. Both Piaget and Vygotsky agreed that children's cognitive development took place in stages.
Piaget describes that children within the sensorimotor intelligence stage use their senses and motor abilities to understand the world around them (Gormly, 1997, p.168). Toddlers begin to understand that an object still exists even when it is out of sight (Berger, 2011, p. 45). Towards the end, the child develops a thought before action process, moving from random acts to making choices with some thought process behind it (Nagy, 2015, p.369). The transition to the preoperational stage presents an increase in representational activity. This stage spans from two to seven years of age (Nagy, 2015, p.369).
Preoperational lies within the time frame of 2-7 years of age where children become egocentric and moralism is introduced to their vocabulary and thought processes (Byrnes, 2008). This additionally leads into concrete operations beginning at age 7 to 11, logical and rational thinking begins to take place ultimately progressing into formal operations from 11 to adulthood (Barrouillet, 2015). Once this stage has been acquired, individuals are capable of hypothetic-deductive reasoning. This is when they are able to assess the advantages and disadvantages of a problem and become proficient in systematic planning (Seoane, Valiña, Rodríguez, Martín & Ferraces,
Smiling and laughter would be the two traits that are the most developed throughout this stage. The next stage in emotional development is the later infancy stage; this occurs from the age of seven months until one year old (Cite). Facial expressions, fear, separation anxiety, and socialization from here (cite). Since emotions are a large part of this stage, what children learn from their parents play a larger role than realized; it shows them how to show and express emotions (cite). Toddlerhood is from one year to two years old (cite).