The discussion that pertains to Piaget’ s stages of development namely sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. For the purpose of this assignment, the preoperational stage whereby the approximate age of children is between 2-7 will be the focus of discussion as it relates to the preschool going children. According to Wadsworth (1996), children in the preoperational stage of cognitive development gradually develop use of language and ability to think in symbolic form. They are also able to think operations through logically in one direction. Additionally, the children at this stage of cognitive development struggle to see and experience the world from others’ viewpoint.
There are many achievements that occur in areas of motor, perceptual, and cognitive development throughout the first three years of a child’s life. Early skills such as grasping and kicking develop first, and by the time they are a year old they have developed mobility skills such as rolling over and crawling. By the age of two, most children are walking and have more control over their movements. Their hand-eye coordination skills will be more developed, and by the time they are three they are able to hold small objects like a crayon. Developmental milestones usually occur in the same order, but can occur at different ages for different children.
If a parent repeatedly calls a child a certain name, then connections form that allow the child to recognize that name over time and he or she will begin to respond to that name (Brotherson, 2005). Through repetitive experiences the axons and synapse strengthen causing learning to take place. The brain is divided into four major lobes: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe. Each lobe contributes to cognitive development in young children.
This stage leads to an understanding of object permanence. The next stage is preoperational which last from two to seven years old. Children in this stage continue to develop language and thinking skills which are acts of symbolic representations. Children in this stage are unable to distinguish that the change in appearance does not equal a change in quantity. Next is the concrete operational stages which continues between the ages of seven and twelve.
Children's increasing linguistic skills open the way for greater socialization of action and communication with others. From the ages of seven to twelve years, children begin the develop logic, although they can only perform logical operations on concrete objects and events. In adolescence, children enter the formal operational stage, which continues throughout the rest of their lives. Children develop the ability to perform abstract intellectual operations, and reach affective and intellectual maturity. Most importantly, children develop the ability to appreciate others' points of view as well as their own.
Piaget describes that children within the sensorimotor intelligence stage use their senses and motor abilities to understand the world around them (Gormly, 1997, p.168). Toddlers begin to understand that an object still exists even when it is out of sight (Berger, 2011, p. 45). Towards the end, the child develops a thought before action process, moving from random acts to making choices with some thought process behind it (Nagy, 2015, p.369). The transition to the preoperational stage presents an increase in representational activity. This stage spans from two to seven years of age (Nagy, 2015, p.369).
Its all are under their thinking skills. Developmental specialists usually look at how children apply learned concepts to everyday situation. Children develop their cognitive skills by learning about causes and effects in everyday activities and the similarities and differences in things around them. We conclude that thinking skills help make all experiences more meaningful to children. So we were choosing skills developing of children between 3 to 6 years old.
During the birth to two years stage children are learning about the world through their sensations and through their movements. One of the most influential theorist’s Jean Piaget developed four important stages of cognitive development. In the first stage, known as the sensorimotor stage, direct sensory experiences are occurring. Motor actions are occurring as well, which are important for the learning of children as they get older. Since infants at this age are learning through their movements they are using basic actions such as grasping onto objects with their hands, sucking, listening and observing the world around them.
(Ginsburg, Opper 1979 P.48) The preoperational stage last from two to seven years. In this stage it becomes possible to carry on a conversation with a child and they also learn to count and use the concept of numbers. This stage is divided into the preoperational phase and the intuitive phase. Children in the preoperational phase are preoccupied with verbal skills and try to make sense of the world but have a much less sophisticated mode of thought than adults. In the intuitive phase the child moves away from drawing conclusions based upon concrete experiences with objects.
Theories abound around how people develop emotionally, intellectually, socially and spiritually. This essay will examine the theories of five leaders on the subject of development. Jean Piaget believed in four stages of development that were fairly concrete in description (Atherton, 2010). 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years old) – Children begin to make sense of the world around them based on their interaction with their physical environment.