Cognitive development theory was propounded by Piaget in (1972). Piaget proposed that cognitive development from infant to young adult occurs in four universal and consecutive stages. The four stages are; sensorimotor - birth to 2 years, preoperational - 2 years to 7 years, concrete operational - 7 years to 11 years and formal operational (abstract thinking) 11 years and up. Each stage has major cognitive tasks which must be accomplished. In the sensorimotor stage, the mental structures are mainly concerned with the mastery of concrete objects. The mastery of symbols takes place in the preoperational stage. In the concrete stage, children learn mastery of classes, relations and numbers and how to reason. The last stage deals with the mastery
In conclusion, I have discussed cognitive development as it relates to the mental aging process of infancy through adolescence. As instructed in the assignment outline, I chose the following three cognitive functions; thinking, intelligence, and language. To the best of my knowledge, I briefly discussed each function based on the information outlined in the text. I also attempted to discuss Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development as they relate to the infancy stage through adolescence throughout the lifespan.
The theory of cognitive development was created by Jean Piaget. Piaget can be classified as both a constructivist and a developmental theorist. This theory describes how the quality of children’s thinking changes over time, and how a child makes a mental model of the world. Piaget disagreed with the idea that intelligence is a fixed trait. Piaget believed that a child’s cognitive development was a process, and that there were four factors that affect the quality of children’s thinking as they grow; as well as four stages of qualitatively different types of thinking through which children progress towards adulthood.
Piaget’s stage theory of cognitive development demonstrates a child’s cognitive ability through a series of observational studies of simple tests. According to Piaget, a child’s mental structure, which is genetically inherited and evolved, is the basis for all other learning and knowledge. Piaget’s
During early childhood or the preschool years, cognitive skills develop rapidly, enabling children to emerge from total dependence on caregivers to become part of the expansive world outside the family (Rathus, 2011). Cognitive development refers to the continuous growth of perception, memory, imagination, conception, judgment, and reason. Cognitive development involves the mental activities of comprehending information and the processes of acquiring, organizing, remembering, and using knowledge (Rathus, 2011). According to Piaget’s (1964) stage theory, the development of knowledge is a spontaneous process linked to the development of the body, nervous system and mental functions. To comprehend the development of knowledge, we begin with the idea of operation, which is to incorporate a concept, value, or scheme into part of ones mental structure. In other words, the developing child builds cognitive structures or networked concepts for understanding and responding to physical objects and experiences within his or her environment. The interaction between the child and his or...
Piaget's model of cognitive development helps us understand the cognitive growth, the active and constructive nature of the child. The model gives a view of cognitive development’s process of change. Due to Piaget’s theory, many believe that ...
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development involves the nature and progression of human intelligence, it deals with how humans come to acquire, construct, and use knowledge. They way we process our physical maturing and experiences from the outside world. From that we adjust our ideas accordingly. He believed that children learn through a stage-like change in understanding. The concept is known as domain general. It is like gaining knowledge and intelligence in all categories rather than specifically in categories such as math or
Piaget has four stages in his theory: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. The sensorimotor stage is the first stage of development in Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development. This stage lasts from birth to the second year of life for babies, and is centered on the babies exploring and trying to figure out the world. During this stage, babies engage in behaviors such as reflexes, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, and tertiary circular
The third stage is the Concrete Operational stage (7-11 years); this is when children are starting to solve problems mentally and develop concepts and are beginning to get better at understanding and following rules. Piaget’s fourth and final stage is the Formal Operational Stage (11 years and over); this stage is where the child is able to think not only as in the terms of the concrete, but also think in the abstract and is now able to think hypothetically. Piaget’s theory is one where children learn in a different manner to that of adults as they do not have the life experiences and interactions that adults have and use to interpret information. Children learn about their world by watching, listening and doing. Piaget’s constructivist theory has had a major impact on current theories and practices of education. Piaget has helped to create a view where the focus is on the idea of developmentally appropriate education. This denotes to an education with environments, materials and curriculum that are coherent with a student’s cognitive and physical abilities along with their social and emotional
While interviewing a kindergarten teacher at PS.142 in Piaget’s context, the first thing that Ms. Martini mentioned to me is that all children grasp things differently. In her class she encourages a lot of engagement in order for her students to develop reasoning. One thing that she mentioned to me that she does with her students is that they all have a journal and in that journal she has then draw and write whatever they want. She then picks several kids a day to share what they did and as a class they talk about the drawing. Another thing that she does with her class is that she has them do a lot of role playing. She says that this helps build confidence in the class. What Ms. Martini does to accommodate the differences in understanding her