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Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Iaden Waste Water Using Duckweed Species

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Title : Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals laden Waste Water using Duckweed species
INTRODUCTION
Presservation of the environment quality is one of the major concern of this century. Our biosphere is getting degraded by the release of natural and synthetic substances that can cause deleterious effects on living organisms. Among all the pollutants , heavy metals are easily transported and accumuted in the environment. Many industries like textile and steel, electroplating, metal producing release heavy metal such as cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and lead in the wastewater (Demirenzen et al., 2007). Most of the heavy metals are toxic or carcinogenic in nature and pose a threat to human health and the environment (Shakibaie et al., 2008; Vinodhini and Narayanan, 2009).
Several conventional methods are used for the removal Heavy metals from wastewater includes chemical precipitation, ion exchange and reverse osmosis etc. but major drawbacks with such treatments are produces large amount of sludge and may be ineffective or expensive processes. So, the search for a new, simple, effective and ecofriendly technology involving the removal of toxic heavy metal from wastewater has directed attention towards phytoremediaton( Divya Singh et al., 2012).According to UNEPPhytoremediation can be defined as “the efficient use of plants to remove, detoxify or immobilise environmental contaminants in a growth matrix (soil, water or sediments) through the natural biological, chemical or physical activities and processes of the plants”. The ideal plants for phytoremediation should possess the ability to tolerate and accumulate high levels of heavy metals in their harvestable parts, while producing high biomass. Many species of macrophytesare used f...

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...sal.Phytoremediation technology has proved to be a viable option to purify water contaminated with trace elements since it is cost-effective and has a positive impact on the environment.In the present study the efficiency of duckweed as an alternative cost effective natural biological tool in wastewater treatment in general and eliminating concentrations of heavy metal present in industrial wastewater was examined in lab conditions. This is an alternate technology in which small scale wastewater treatment can be achieved. It has been used recently in Bangladesh for wastewater treatment as well as this technology has been implemented at village level under UNDP project. More research through pilot projects is needed in order to refine the sizing of the ponds used and to determine the correct innocculum of plant material to achieve a predetermined effluent quality.
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