How the chemicals are being disposed of should be monitored (Howells). Marcellus Shale drilling is a dangerous process with many consequences. The Marcellus Shale industry is said to create new jobs and be a source of “clean” energy (Environmental) (Griswold). However, this process uses hundreds of deadly chemicals, it causes pollution, and it has few regulations. A solution to these negative consequences would be to create and enforce more regulations.
Introduction Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is one of the most harmful heavy metal contaminations which could severely affect the environment in a number of ways and in turn affect the living population within that environment. This however can be due to a variety of issues such as environmental disruption or human activity. Cadmium is classed as a Class D heavy metal, meaning, “It does not have a known biological function and can be toxic even when in low amounts”. This very toxic water-soluble heavy metal is a by-product during mining, extraction or removing impurities from ores with Copper, Lead and Zinc. One of the well-known disasters in history is Thailand’s cadmium contamination due to zinc mining by humans.
It can pose a threat to human health and environment due to its hazardous effect.Heavy metals existence in water can damage many of human part even in low concentration. Therefore removing heavy metals in water are very important.The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set up the maximum contamination levels (MCLs) of heavy metals for surface or groundw... ... middle of paper ... ...ructural polysaccharides,amido, amino, sulphydryl carboxyl groups, alcohols and ester.These functional groups substitute hydrogen ions for metal ionsin solution or donation of an electron pair to form complexes with the metal ions in solutions. Due to abundant binding groups, AWBs could be an enormous potential source of adsorbent materials for decontaminating heavy metals from wastewater (T.A.H. Nguyen a, et al,2013). The hydroxyl and carboxyl groups present in these biopolymers are the responsible of Cr(VI) reduction and subsequent Cr(III) adsorption (Marta López-García a, 2013) (Lin andWang, 2012; Wang and Lee, 2011).
An increase in industrial, agricultural practices and several anthropogenic activities adds a significant amount of heavy metals in soil and water. Presence of these metals beyond the threshold limit is toxic for the flora and fauna of the surroundings. So, there is a need for removing the harmful heavy metals from the environment. Conventional methods such as precipitation, evaporation, electroplating, ion exchange, membrane processes, etc. have been ineffective because of technical and economic issues.
Through industrial and consumer waste, heavy metals can enter a water supply or even from acidic rain breaking down soils and discharging heavy metals into streams, lakes, waterways, and groundwater. Some overwhelming metals incorporate: • Lead (Pb) • Mercury (Hg) • Chromium (Cr) (in spite of the fact that just the structure Cr(vi) is dangerous) • Zinc (Zn) • Copper (Cu) • Arsenic (As) • Nickel (Ni) • Cadmium (Cd) A few of these components are necessary for human health, and are useful when taken into the form in nourishments or as supplements at suitable, low levels. Alternately, cadmium, lead and mercury have no known living capacity and are lethal to people. Dis... ... middle of paper ... ...(mercurous chloride, Hg2cl2) is utilized as a standard as a part of electrochemical estimations and in medication as a laxative. Mercuric chloride (destructive sublimate, Hgcl2) is utilized as an insect spray, in rodent poison, and as a disinfectant.
1.1 Background Nowadays, industrial activity growth and increasing water usage worldwide have led to the release of various pollutants such as toxic heavy metals into aquatic environment. Industrial activity also can cause to heavy contamination in surface water, groundwater, or the sea, in which they enter into the food chain that causing the toxic effects. Heavy metals ion such as copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and chromium are often found in industrial wastewater. Heavy metals are really dangerous because they can go through a process of bioaccumulation. They have the potential to ts accumulate within sensitive organs and tissues (Wong et al., 2009).
According to Sharma (2005), water pollution is alteration in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water which may cause harmful effects on human and aquatic biota. Industrial waste, oil leakage and chemical and pesticides are some of the sources of water pollution. Industries produce a large amount of waste that contains toxic chemicals. Most of the industries do not have proper waste management system and the waste goes into drain and later into sea. It leads to the increasing of temperature and mineral amounts in water.
Environmental health, climate change, acid rain, and air pollution are among the top problems with fossil fuel production and consumption. (http://environment.about.com/library/weekly/aa050700.htm) Fossil fuel use creates severe impact on the environment in all stages of use: recovery, transportation, preparation/refining, storage, and end use. Recovery, the first stage is basically the process of coal mining. This includes the destruction of topsoil, and the risk of gushers or accidents. Also, recovery leads to discolored local creeks and rivers because of the acidic run-off of these waters (Lecture 3/11/02).
Heavy metals are non-biodegradable and will accumulate in the environment. High concentrations of heavy metals beyond threshold limits pose high risks to the environmental and human health. Apart from mining, other anthropogenic sources of heavy metals include smelting, electroplating, the use of pesticide and fertilizer in agriculture, industrial discharge etc. Should heavy metals enter the food chain through soil contamination they can cause adverse health problems such as lead poisoning, kidney and brain damage. Over the past few decades there have been increasing interests in development of technologies for the remediation of contaminated soils.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background study In this era of globalization, disposal of industrial waste is a great problem for the world’s population. Effluent from industries such as textile industry will result in water pollution, continuously spreading critical diseases. The World Bank estimates that 17 to 20 percent of industrial water pollution comes from textile dyeing and treatment. Textile industry and its dye-containing wastewater are not only undesirable for its colour, but the breakdown of the products also release toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic substances that threaten human’s health (Suteu D. et al., 2010). Zaharia Carmen and Suteu Daniela (2012) state that, only 10 to 25 percent of textile dyes lost during dyeing process whereas a total of 2 to 20 percent will be discharged directly as aqueous effluent in different environment component.