What Foucault really wants us to do is take a step back, and truly dissect the foundations of autonomy that we seemed to have built many of our structures upon. It is necessary that we draw our own conclusions of Enlightenment based s... ... middle of paper ... ...xt. One is that use of reason is not necessarily a principal of freedom. This idea that discovering truth creates systems of power must be rejected. Second is that claiming a certain form of rationality is the correct form, to be utilised by all individuals or society cannot be one that we take to be normative.
Kant directly deals with the problems presented in Hume's analysis of metaphysics. Where Hume stops his line of thinking and becomes skeptical as to the existence of metaphysics as a science, Kant picks up. He proceeds to analyze both the validity of metaphysics as a science and a force in our lives. Turning to the methods of other credible men in the scientific field- such as Copernicus- Kant develops a whole new approach to looking at the world. However, like Hume, Kant encounters an obstacle and does not find a solution for it.
Philosophy can break the taciturn response and force the seeker to question why he or she wants an answer from society instead of finding the answer within him or herself. It can hone one’s critical thinking skills and allow for a deeper inspection and understanding of the pedigrees of these desires. In addition, philosophy creates suspicion within those who choose to participate in this deeper level of thinking. In modern society, many aspects of life are accepted without question, simply because of what we are taught. For example, in science, gravity is taught as fact, while in reality it is actually just a theory - specificall... ... middle of paper ... ...al tendencies can assist one to understand the reactions we experience when we face the instances of betrayal and being lied to.
Kant claims that humans cannot see things in themselves due to the cognitive limitations that they have, (Grier). Using his theory of transcendental idealism, he proves transcendental realism wrong. Kant’s ‘Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics’ constitutes his theory of knowledge, while disproving any scepticism caused by Hume, by claiming that knowledge of objects are independently determined by how they are perceived by us. To better understand its meaning, transcendental idealism needs to be defined against other forms of idealism. Idealism, in general, is the claim that reality is dependent on the mind and their ideas, (Morrison).
The essays, ‘An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment’ by Immanuel Kant, an 18th century philosopher, and ‘What is Enlightenment’ by Michel Foucault, a 20th century philosopher. The texts show that the Enlightenment was the age of reason because it allowed individuals to use reason in order to break free from the minority placed on their lives, the results of which are still influencing the world we live in today. Kant referred to the age in which he lived as an ‘age’ of enlightenment. He felt that human beings could often live in a state of “self-incurred minority.” This refers to the lack of courage in an individual, to use his own intellect (reason) without direction from someone else. The Oxford Dictionary defines reason as “the power of the mind to think, understand, and form judgments by a process of logic.” Although this is a modern definition of reason it is similar to the definition of reason in the Enlightenment era, where John Locke describes reason as “the discovery of the certainty or probability of such propositions or truths which the mind arrives at by deductions [inferences] made from such ideas which it has got by use of its natural faculties, viz.
Fundamental faults are pointed out in Hegelian historicism. Philosophical schools such as structuralism and determinism as well as human psychology contradict historicism. Philosophers believe that Hegel’s historicism has inherent conflicts that surprisingly fall in same dialectic argument that Hegel promotes, which somehow nullifies his philosophy. Originated and influenced by his Dialectic thought process of “thesis, antithesis, and synthesis”, Hegel believes that all societal and more importantly all human activities including culture, language, science, art, and even philosophy are defined by their past and the heart of these activities can be understood by studying their history. Hegel argues that the history of societal activity is a cumulative reaction to the events that has happened in the past.
Marx also argued that there was now a need to set the movement of reality back up in the right way. Hegel had already made mistakes when he gave alot more importance to the metaphysical idea rather than to the physical ‘real world.’ The state was given authority t... ... middle of paper ... ...ve the importance of ideologies in forming strategies for hegemonic control before and after the revolution. Therefore Gramsci argues that an analysis and understanding of any source that is conscious is needed. This does also include those aspects that have the experience of living within the society that cannot avoid using the superstructure. This piece of writing ahs shown that Gramsci was influenced by Marx alot.
Ralph Waldo Emerson, a famous essayist of the Romantic Era, helped to lead the transcendentalist movement with his essays describing individualism: “Nature,” “Self-Reliance,” and “Each and All.” “Self-Reliance,” specifically, portrays the idea of the transcendentalist movement through breaking away from the norms of society, for one must make his own decisions. Emerson explains that people should not rely on knowledge provided by others; instead, they should make their decisions based on personal experiences and thoughts. Rather than depending on what society believes is right or wrong, Emerson expresses his idea that it is better determine one’s own opinion about a subject than having the same belief as others. Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” helps promote the idea of transcendentalism in the Romantic Era through the ideas of making one’s own decisions, ignoring the norms of society, and making decisions without fear based on social status. Throughout Emerson’s “Self-Reliance, he stresses the idea of people making their own decisions on certain beliefs.
Kant is clearly attempting to break the chains of laziness and cowardice that hold a man back, preventing him from ultimate understanding. For Kant, a man becomes truly enlightened when his thoughts are his own, and his individual use of reason leads to the correct decisions. The public use of reason allows for these individuals to escape from the restrictions that the private sphere holds, restrictions which allow their own jobs to be completed as a benefit for the public. For Kant, the public use of reason is man’s assumption of the role of a scholar, one who places ideas “before the public for its judgment.” (Kant 43). It seems as though Kant’s use of rationality, however, involves simply speaking one’s mind and putting forth a certain set of op... ... middle of paper ... ...that all its consequences must be beneficial.
It also taught one how enlightenment can be brought about in the general public. Kant explains that, "enlightenment is man's release from his self-incurred immaturity". Immaturity is man's incompetence to have direction for oneself. In other words, enlightenment is the progress of a society through the free activity of rational thought and scholarly critique. Kant feels that if we are going to liberate ourselves from immaturity then we must be able to use our freedom whenever we want.