Husserl dubbed his famous transcendental phenomenology as the “new, twentieth century Cartesianism” and quoted Descartes on the insistence that the only fruitful renaissance is considered as one that reawakens. Husserl discussed Descartes in almost all his published works during his mature period. How can people characterize the Cartesianism that is found on Husserl’s Cartesian meditations? One recent scholar made the argument that Husserl derived one idea from Descartes that can he altered profoundly. The deepest affinity that exists between Husserl and Descartes is their common diagnosis regarding the state of affairs regarding the contemporary sciences that were found in their respective times. Husserl found a rather deep affinity with the optimism and pessimism that were associated with Descartes. He shared the pessimism regarding the then state of science and the optimism of the unlimited prospects of a reformed science and the role philosophy would play in such reforms. In recent philosophy of mind, phenomenology is prized as the basic foundation that philosophy is founded on, as opposed to disciplines such as metaphysics, epistemology and ethics. The methods used in the characterization of this disciplines were debated widely by Husserl as well as his successors, debates that continue to
The purpose of this paper is to provide a recreation of the ideas held by Edmund Husserl post-1890 and then to elucidate them in light of modern understanding. His greatest contributions of phenomenology and consciousness as a directed event will be the focus and offer guidance for Husserl’s uncovering of the ego as not only a state of being separate of the environment but also a state of immersion within the environment.
In 1894 Einstein’s family moved to Milan but Albert stayed behind in Munich. In 1895 Albert failed an examination that would have allowed him to study for a diploma as an electrical engineer at the Eidgenossiche Technische Hochschule in Zurich. After some time he graduated in 1900 as a teacher, teaching mathematics at the Technical High School in Winterthur.
Around 1886 Albert Einstein began his school career in Munich. As well as his violin lessons, which he had from age six to age thirteen, he also had religious education at home where he was taught Judaism. Two years later he entered the Luitpold Gymnasium and after this his religious education was given at school. He studied mathematics, in particular the calculus, beginning around 1891.
Husserl uses the lifeworld as a means to explain the rational structures underlying transcendental intersubjectivity; the structures are initially unconscious to us (Beyer). Act ascription is ultimately based upon and epistemically justified by the lifeworld. The lifeworld is the unthematic sociolcultural world shaped by normativity, historicity and tradition (Zahavi 133). The lifeworld is shaped by certain morphological structures that are historically mediated by communities; the lifeworld would be chaotic otherwise. (Zahavi 130). The lifeworld that is shared by a single community of subjects is known as the homeworld (Beyer). Subjects from different lifeworlds can share a general a priori framework; this allows for translation between the lifeworlds (Beyer). The subjective-relative lifeworld exists as the condition of possibility for our scientific and epistemological claims, yet is rooted in practical experience (Franck
Ertl also described himself in his former biographies that he was very good at math, and also decided to study physics instead of chemistry, so he attended the Technical University of Stuttgart int he year of 1995(History1900s.about.com, 2014). A diploma was attained shortly after in 1961, where he then spent times between Universities in Munich and Paris(History1900s.about.com, 2014). In his biography he goes on to saying that his first real research assignment was to develop such an apparatus and measure...
Johannes Kepler was born the son of a poor mercenary solider in 1571 in Weil der Stadt, Wurttemburg in the Holy Roman Empire. He began his education in Wurttemburg through a scholarship program designed to produce teachers and Lutheran pastors. In 1589, Kepler entered the theological seminary at the University of Tubingen. It was here that he first learned of Copernican astronomy from Michael Maestlin. The University of Tubingen awarded Kepler his MA in 1591. In 1594 Kepler interrupted his theological studies and accepted an appointment as a mathematics teacher at the Lutheran school in Graz, however, he was later dismissed from the position in 1600 due to religious persecution and a standing order for all Lutherans to leave the district. Earlier that year, Kepler temporarily worked with the Emperor Rudolf II's Imperial Mathematician, Tycho Brahe. . Kepler later traveled to Prague to join Brahe and work as his assistant until Brahe's death in 1601, whereby Kepler was appointed successor as The Imperial Mathematician. The appointment was the most prestigious honor in all of Europe for mathematics during his time.
The German Georg Cantor was an even more outstanding mathematician. He was born in Saint Petersburg, Russia, where he was eleven.Thereafter-, the family moved to Germany, and Cantor received his education at Darmstadt, Zurich , Berlin, and (almost inevitably ) Gottingen before marrying and getting settling at the University of the Halle, where he was to spend the rest of his career.
After graduation, he studied two years at the University of Poitiers, earning a Bachelors in Law, in accordance with his father's wishes that he should become a lawyer. He had an ambition to become a professional military officer, so he joined the Dutch States Army and undertook a formal study of military engineering. He then received much encouragement to advance his knowledge of mathematics, becoming acquainted with Isaac Beeckman. (Group) He was born in the Kingdom of France and died in Sweden. From the time period 1569-1650 Sweden won wars against Denmark, Russia, and Poland. Sweden emerged as a great power by taking direct control of the Baltic region. Sweden's role in the Thirty Years' War determined the political as well as the religious balance of power in Europe. (Wikipedia) Before he was alive some of the mathematicians that were alive before him were; Isaac Beeckman, Plato, Aristotle, Archimedes, Alhazen, Al-Ghazali, Averroes, Avicenna, Anselm, Augustine, Stoics, Aquinas, Ockham, Suarez, Mersenne, Sextus Empiricus, Montaigne, Golius, Duns Scotus. All these mathematicians helped him become/develop his theories. Current opinion is that Descartes had the most influence of anyone on the young Newton, and this is arguably one of Descartes'