Phenolic Acids Essay

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Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites widely distributed in foods, especially fruits and vegetables. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted a lot of attention because they exist ubiquitously in plants and play protective roles. Phenolic acids possess interesting biological properties, (Beilin, Stocker, & Croft, 1997) that render them interesting to study. They are widespread in crops such as fruits, vegetables, herbs, grains, and seeds and derived foods such as juices, wines, and oils, (Graf, Ameho, Dolnokowski, Milbuty, Chen, & Blumberg, 2006). Phenolic compounds play a key role in thwarting the negative impacts of oxygen and nitrogen reactive species (ROS/RNS), maintaining the redox homeostasis of biological fluids and preventing conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and other degenerative pathologies, such as cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, (Shahrzad & Bitsch, 1998). Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavanones,secoiridoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes, coumarins, and isoflavones form a large class of polyphenols, which are phenolic compounds. This study, however, focuses on one category of these phenolic compounds: phenolic acids. These particular compounds have been classified into two groups, namely hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids. The most common hydroxybenzoic acids are protocatechuic acid and gallic acid, while hydroxycinnamic acids include ferulic acid, coumaric acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and sinapic acid, (Nigdikar, Williams, Griffin, & Howard). Unlike hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids usually occur at very low levels in some black radish, red fruits, and onions, accounting for about 10 ppm on a fresh weight basis. Protocatechuic ac... ... middle of paper ... ...efore, is to detect and determine phenolic acids in pig blood by examining levels in red blood cells, plasma, albumin, low density lipoprotein (LDL),and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). It is important to note that when a phenolic compound is present in body fluids, it generally occurs in one or several conjugated forms such as methyl, glucuronide and sulfate, (Proudfoot, Puddey, Beilin, Stocker, & Croft, 1997). There are several methods used to determine bioavailability of phenolic acids and possible metabolites in blood. Some of these methods include electron impact mass spectrometer (EI-MS), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer (APCI-MS), electro-spray ionization mass spectrometer (ESI-MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometer, (S Bertuglia, et al) as well as the more conventional HPLC after identification.

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