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Pharmacology of Diltiazem Hydrochloride

explanatory Essay
568 words
568 words
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Diltiazem Hydrochloride, nondihydropyridine-derivative, is a member of the group of drugs known as benzothiazepines, which are a class of calcium channel blockers, used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and some types of arrhythmia. It is a class III anti-anginal drug, and a class IV antiarrhythmic [1]. Diltiazem Hydrochloride exerts its pharmacological action through inhibiting trans-membrane influx of extracellular calcium ions across the membranes of myocardial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, without changing serum calcium concentrations. It is a peripheral arterial vasodilator that acts directly on vascular smooth muscle causing reduction in peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure. It possesses substantial inhibitory effects on the cardiac conduction system, acting principally at the atrioventricular (AV) node to slow conduction time and prolong AV nodal refractoriness. In spite of being a corner stone in the treatment and management of hypertension, angina and arrhythmia, it experiences a major pharmacokinetic problem. Despite the fact that fol...

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that diltiazem hydrochloride is a class iii anti-anginal drug and class iv antiarrhythmic. it inhibits trans-membrane influx of extracellular calcium ions across the membranes of myocardial cells and vascular smooth muscle.
  • Explains that intranasal administration is a viable option for local and systemic delivery of diverse therapeutic compounds. the large surface area of the nasal mucosa affords rapid onset of therapeutic effect, potential for direct-to-central nervous system delivery, no first-pass metabolism, and non-invasiveness.
  • Explains that particle drug delivery is an important way of enhancing intranasal absorption. niosomes are vesicular systems which are amphiphilic in nature and well characterized for favorable permeation of drugs through biological membranes.
  • Explains that intranasally administered non-ionic surfactant based vesicles encapsulating diltiazem hydrochloride were developed to avoid the first-pass metabolism and optimize the drug’s in vivo characteristics.
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